All the water on the planet includes water on the surface, underground, and air called hydrosphere.
What is the hydrosphere
More than 70% of the earth is covered by water, this amount of water exists on the surface, under the ground, and air. Water can exist in liquid, vapor, and ice form.
Water in oceans, seas, lakes, lagoons, fountains, waterfalls, and rivers is surface water, these are in liquid form however surface water can include water in ice form.
Ice caps and glaciers are surface water in form of ice, it is a frozen part of the hydrosphere that has a special name, Cryosphere.
Wells and aquifers are underground water. Water in the air mostly is in vapor form, clouds and fog are vapor. All this water in every form and everywhere is known as hydrosphere.
How hydrosphere formed
At first, there was no water on earth. Scientists have different theories about how water appeared on Earth.
Some scientists believe that most of the water entered the Earth due to meteorites that hit it, these celestial bodies contained ice that was trapped in the Earth after the impact. Others believe that water has penetrated the earth due to its chemical reactions and has become ice due to the very low temperature of the earth.
The low temperature prevents the surface water from evaporating so is stored in the form of ice. From the very beginning of the formation of the hydrosphere until now there have been slight changes in the amount of water, despite the change of water phase, its amount has remained almost constant.
Why hydrosphere is essential for living organisms
We all know that water is a vital substance. From time to time we hear that the discovery of water on planets or moons indicates the possibility of life and the existence of living things on it the existence of water is a strong and strong sign for the existence of life in a place.
Due to the abundance of water on earth, its importance is also revealed. Hydrosphere water with any phase and source can be used for different purposes of organisms.
The body and its components in the micro view are composed of cells with very different shapes and functions.
It’s interesting to know that about 75% of cells are made up of water, which means water is the source of life! Without water, the shape of cells changes, this deformation leads to a change in function and eventually affects the whole body.
Humans use water in different ways, the most famous of which is drinking water. Much of health is also dependent on water, in addition, water plays an important role in various industries.
Water is essential for electricity generation ( Hydropower), tourism boom, regional climate, etc.
Aquatic environments are home to billions of living things from giant whales to tiny aquatic bacteria, All these creatures live in water and provide their food from it.
Also, a big part of human food is dependent on water and aquatic organisms. In the other words wherever the water exists, it provides habitable zones.
The special heat of water is a useful and unique property of water. The specific heat of water keeps the temperature of the environment balanced, but how? Why nuclear weapons should be banned
This specific heat causes a large amount of time to be heated or cooled by a water source, it means that changes in ambient temperature are absorbed by the water source and prevented from affecting the environment.
Also, this change in adsorbed temperature has very little effect on the overall temperature of the water source. In conclusion, the climate of areas which the water exist there, won’t have too many changes.
Vital chemistry reactions in the body or environment are associated with water, for example, photosynthesis and cellular respiration in animals, humans, and plants.
Water cycle is the other vital process that gets happened in the hydrosphere. The life of all organisms is tied to the water cycle because this cycle regenerates the hydrosphere and returns evaporated water to the earth’s surface.
How hydrosphere and atmosphere interact
The atmosphere is another part of Earth’s system, most of the atmosphere contains oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2), other gases such as carbon dioxide, argon, etc.
The water cycle plays an important role in the hydrosphere. The cycle regenerates the hydrosphere and returns evaporated water to it.
Water cycle: Surface water evaporates due to atmospheric temperature and rises in the atmosphere, when it reaches a certain temperature range in the atmosphere, it becomes a cloud.
As the temperature decreases, the condensed steam returns to the earth as rain and rejoins the surface waters.
As we mentioned above, Part of the water cycle occurs in the atmosphere, without the atmosphere, the overall possibility of a water cycle is zero. Failure to complete the water cycle means the destruction of the hydrosphere.
How does the geosphere interact with the hydrosphere
The geosphere includes terrestrial environments, it is mostly formed by rock and solid substances.
Unlike the hydrosphere, which includes the earth’s aquatic environments, the geosphere includes terrestrial environments. Earth systems are always interacting with each other.
The geosphere and hydrosphere together form habitat, a habitable environment for living organisms.
Food dependence of terrestrial animals on aquatic food resources, creating temperature balance in the geosphere to increase the quality of life of living things, using water to grow plants in the geosphere, amphibians whose lives depend on both environments, all are significant examples.
Hydraulic erosion is one other way that connects the hydrosphere and geosphere. Consecutive melting and freezing of water in the crevices of mountains and rocks causes them to erode and crush, this creates soil from rock and soil is an important component of the geosphere.
The fine, soft sands of the desert are formed by water erosion caused by a sharp temperature difference between day and night.
Sandy beaches where there are no rocks have also been created by water erosion, and the powerful impact of the sea waves has caused the rocks to disappear over time.
How does the biosphere affect the hydrosphere
The biosphere is made up of virtually all of the earth’s habitats, including aquatic habitats, terrestrial habitats, and aerial habitats.
All living things live in the biosphere, the biosphere needs non-living factors in addition to living things. Biosphere living organisms need non-livings to survive, non-livings are also shaping the habitable environment. Non-livings contain water, air, and light.
Living organisms in the biosphere need water to swim, drink, provide their food from it. Plants need water to grow up, these plants are food sources for different types of animals.
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