Infectious diseases always have been considered a dangerous threat to human beings. Nowadays with the development of medicines, vaccines, and some preventions most infectious diseases got decreased but, there are still some others that are out of control.
Infectious diseases can occur by the varied range of pathogens that bacteria and viruses are most of them. The immune system can fight and defend the body against them. Infectious diseases caused by 6 pathogens:
What are the stages of infectious
There are 5 stages:
- Incubation: This period includes the time of exposure to the pathogen until it enters the body. Bacterial, viral, or any other agent proliferation occurs at this stage. Duration depends on the type of infection.
- Prodromal: This period is observed before the onset of specific symptoms of infection. It is felt weak and primary symptoms due to proliferation that are often ignored. These symptoms can be low-grade fever and unreasonable fatigue. Infectious can be transmitted in prodromal. Duration depends on the type of infection.
- Illness: Specific and recognizable symptoms occur at this stage. The type of infection in this period can be diagnosed based on its symptoms. ( Kinds of infection and some of their symptoms:
- Respiratory infections →runny nose, sore throat, cough, sneeze, problem in breathing. Gastrointestinal infections→diarrhea, vomiting, stomachache). Duration depends on the type of infection, microbe/ virus/ bacteria, and strength of the immune system.
- Decline: This step can be explained in two conditions. The first condition is the successful defense of the immune system, which reduces the symptoms of infection and infectious particles in the body. The second condition is a breakdown of the immune system and an increase in the pathogen until the person gets a secondary infection. Infection is still able to transmit in the decline stage.
- Convalescence: In the last stage, the effects of infection and infectious particles are completely removed from the body. Sometimes, depending on the severity and type of infection, permanent effects occur that do not disappear in the convalescence phase.
What are different ways in which infectious diseases can be spread
Due to this factor, there are five groups of infectious diseases:
- Transmitted by digestive system: More than half of all diseases that are caused death in children and some adults occur by pathogens that enter into the mouth by food contaminated water and hands, such as bloody diarrhea, intestinal parasites, and cholera.
- Transmitted by respiratory system: The most important viral diseases are spread by the respiratory system, such as flu and cold. In these diseases, the virus is spread by small droplets that are spread in the air by the patient sneezing or coughing.
- Transmitted by the skin and mucous membrane: Whenever a person gets contact with the skin or mucous membrane of a patient directly or indirectly by touching an object or surface. Chickenpox, ringworm, and pediculosis are taken place in this group.
- Transmitted by the reproductive system: Pathogens that can be spread through the reproductive system are viruses, bacteria, unicellular organisms, and fungi. Genital herpes, genital warts, and gonorrhea are among these parts. If these diseases are not diagnosed and treated in time, complications such as infertility, preterm labor, and stillbirth will occur.
- Transmitted by blood and body fluids: Some infections can be spread while blood or other body fluids like urine, saliva, and vaginal secretions of an infected person get in contact with uninfected ones. Hepatitis ( types are A, B, C, D, E, G, GB) and HIV( human immunodeficiency virus) are two important diseases of this group.
Why are infectious diseases so dangerous
There are some strong reasons and examples that show infectious diseases can be dangerous:
- There are some infectious diseases that we still couldn’t find their treatment for. HIV it’s one of them, moreover, HIV can also have not specific symptoms to diagnose, it can spread easily.
- New and mutant pathogens that humans encounter can be very dangerous. Covid-19 is one and clear example, as it happened, it was a new virus that human beings see.
- The rate of transmission of some infections is so high that it is very difficult to control even with treatment or vaccine.
- Infectious diseases can also be used as a weapon to target specific people or groups for various purposes, such as military purposes.
- Pathogens like viruses or bacteria transmitted from animals to humans are also a big worry.