Tughlaq dynasty | History, Rulers, Architectur, UPSC

Tughlaq dynasty

 

Tughlaq dynasty history

Tughlaq dynasty was the third dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate and its founder was Ghazi Malik. Tughlaq dynasty ruled from 1320 to 1413.

 

Tughlaq dynasty Information

Origin Turkic
Capital Delhi
Religion Islam
Currency Taka
Reign 1320 to 1413
Government Sultanate
Historical era Medieval 14th Century
Languages Persian, Turkish, Urdu, Hindi
Today Part of  India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

Tughlaq dynasty rulers

No. Ruler name Reign
1 Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq 1320 to 1324
2 Muhammad bin Tughlaq 1324 to 1351
3 Firoz Shah Tughlaq 1351 to 1388
4 Muhammad Khan 1388
5 Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq shah II 1388
6 Abu Baqr 1389 to 1390
7 Nasiruddin Muhammad 1390 to 1394
8 Humayun 1394 to 1395
9 Nasiruddin Mahmud 1395 to 1413

 

Ghiyasuddin

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq

His reign lasted from the year 1320 to 1325.

Ghazi Malik is popularly known as Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, and he founded the Tughlaq Dynasty by ending the Khilji Dynasty in the year 1320.

He used to be the governor of the North-Western Province before becoming the ruler.

Ghazi Malik captured the throne of Delhi by killing Khusro Khan, the last ruler of the Khilji dynasty.

Initial difficulties of Ghiyasuddin

Reestablishing Sultanate post in Delhi Sultanate.

Fixing the economy of the empire.

Recollecting the royal treasury was reduced because of the last rulers of the Khilji dynasty.

Military Reform

Ghiyasuddin marked all the horses and divided his troops into separate battalions, which greatly strengthened his army.

Mongol invaders

Most Mongol invaders attacked India during Giasuddin’s reign. Many historians believe that the Mongols invaded several times during Ghiyasuddin’s time, but he was successful to save his empire from the Mongols.

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq Administration

He adopted policies of both generosity and rigor.

He used to say that “I am born to rule all areas”

Ghiyasuddin changed the way of solicitation imposed by Alauddin and introduced a practice policy called (Galla Batai).

 

Works

He encouraged farming.

He improved the postal system during his reign.

He suppressed many rebellions in a very peaceful way.

He established a new city which was known as Tughlaqabad.

Ghiyasuddin reduced all taxes to correct the economy of the farmers.

He appointed all those people who were eligible, whether poor or rich, on all posts.

He started the copper currency system, but shortly after the currency prices started falling, due to which the copper coins had to be closed.

During the reign of Alauddin Khilji, all those lands were taken back from people which were given by the previous Rulers of Alauddin Khilji, However, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq started giving the pieces of land again to the people as soon as he came to power.

Important victories of Ghiyasuddin tughlaq

  • The victory of Warangal in the year 1324.
  • Conquest of Telangana in the year 1324.
  • Tirhutu victory in 1324.
  • Mongol conquest in the year 1324.

Death

In 1324 – 25, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq went on Bengal expedition and when he returned after conquering Bihar and Bengal so Muhammad bin Tughlaq had built a large luxurious palace for his grand welcome, it is believed that During the victory ceremony of Bihar and Bengal a wood from the roof palace fall on Ghiyasuddin’s head and he died.

Some historians believe that was an incident and some believe that was a murder.

His successor was Juna Khan.

 

Muhammad bin tughlaq

Muhammad Bin Tughlaq

His reign lasted from the year 1325 to 1351.

After the death of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, his son Juna Khan sat on the throne of Delhi by the name of Muhammad bin Tughlaq and ruled from 1325 to 1351, and Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s original name was Ulugh Khan.

Muhammad bin Tughluq was a courageous ruler. He did many good works during his reigns such as he improved farming and learned religious books.

He was an open-minded person and used to attend the Holi festival of Hindus. He was interested in science, mathematics. He gave equal rights to both Hindus and Muslims during his reign.

Works

Tax on Agriculture

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq had imposed a 50% tax on those lands which were fertile but there was a famine that year due to which the farmers did not even pay tax to him.

 

Diwan e kohi

Diwan e kohi was a department to collect a tax. It was also called Diwan e Amir. The officials of this department used to collect tax from farmers but Muhammad bin Tughluq’s dream of collecting tax from farmers was not successful and there were two reasons behind its failure.

The first, land that Muhammad bin Tughlaq gave to the farmers to cultivate was not fertile, so the farmers paid less tax

The second reason was that the officer which were appointed by Muhammad bin Tughlaq on Diwan e kohi post, they were run away with the money.

 

Encouraged Agriculture

Muhammad bin Tughlaq was the first Muslim ruler to build canals for irrigation and he was the founder of Jahan Panah Nagar.

 

Tokens currency

He had discontinued gold and silver coins during his reign and had rung copper coins.

In the year 1329, Muhammad bin Tughlaq had introduced a coin called “Dokani” and the value of these coins was almost equal to silver coins named Taka.

Dokani coins could not last long in the market, so in the year 1330, Muhammad bin Tughlaq had to close these coins.

 

Capital change

Muhammad Bin Tughlaq’s capital was Delhi, but he shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri but he could not stay long in Divagiri therefore he returned to Delhi in 1927.

Two historians, Ziauddin Barani and Ibn Battuta have told in their books why Muhammad bin Tughlaq shifted his capital to Devagiri.

According to Ziauddin Barani, he went to Devagiri because it was the center of his empire and he was also very less in danger of Mongol invaders in Devagiri.

According to Ibn Battuta, he went to Devagiri because people in Delhi did not like him.

 

Qarachil expedition

Qarachil is a place located in the Kumaon hills of Uttarakhand, Mohammed bin Tughlaq started the Qarachil expedition because he wanted to stop the rebels and enter China.

Initially, Muhammad bin Tughluq was successful because his army was doing well but when the people of Qarachil secretly started attacking from the middle of the hills, Muhammad bin Tughluq’s army had to struggle and his army lost.

 

Khorasan expedition

Khorasan was a part of Central Asia and no ruler was ruling in Khorasan at that time, therefore Muhammad bin Tughluq thought that he should rule in Khorasan, so he formed an army to rule Khorasan and paid money to soldiers in advance.

But within one year everything went well in Khorasan, due to which Muhammad bin Tughluq had to cancel the plan to go to Khorasan.

 

Ibn battuta

Ibn Battuta was a Moroccan Muslim explorer and a writer, he first came to India during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq.

Muhammad bin Tughlaq was highly impressed when ibn battuta told him about his journey therefore he appointed Ibn battuta as a Kazi of Delhi.

In the year 1342, Muhammad bin Tughluq sent Ibn Battuta as an Ambassador to China.

Ibn Battuta has also written a book called Rahela.

 

Death

On 20 march in 1351, Muhammad bin Tughlaq died at a place called thatta near the Indus valley due to fever after ending a rebellion.

After his death, an author named Badayuni wrote in his book that People got freedom from Tughlaq, and Tughlaq got rid of people because neither people were happy with him nor he was happy with them.

 

Other Name of Muhammad bin Tughlaq

  • Ulugh khan
  • Juna khan
  • Sultan e Adil
  • Sultan e Kamil

 

Firoz Shah

Firoz Shah Tughlaq

His reign lasted from the year 1351 to 1387.

Firoz Shah Tughlaq was a cousin of Muhammad bin Tughluq and some historians believe that Firoz did not want to become a ruler but some Islamic scholars encouraged him to become a ruler.

At the time when Feroze became the ruler of Delhi, he was 45 years old and his mother was also the princess of Deepalpur.

 

Taxes

Firoz Shah Tughlaq conducted his reign according to Islamic scholars and Sharia law, so he abolished 24 taxes as soon as he became the ruler and only 4 types of taxes were imposed on the people according to Sharia law, khams, Kharaj, Jaziya, and Zakat

khams tax – Under this tax, the soldiers had to pay 20 percent tax to the Ruler out of the treasury won by the army.

Kharaj tax – This tax was imposed on farmers in which farmers had to pay about 30 percent tax of their total income.

Jizyah tax – Under this tax, Non-Muslim had to pay tax for their security.

Zakat tax – This tax was imposed on Muslims, in which Muslims had to pay 2.5 percent of their total income, It was a religious tax.

Firoze Shah Tughlaq spent the money collected from tax for his people.

Important Departments

Diwan I bandagan – Firoz Shah Tughlaq loved his slaves very much and cared for them, so he made a department called diwan-i-bandagan for 180-000 slaves.

Diwan I Khairat – Diwan-i-Khairat means charity department, and the job of this department was to collect money from people and help widows, orphans, and the poor with this money.

Dar ul safa – It was a hospital that was run with charity money, in this hospital, any person who could not pay money, could get treatment for free.

Department for his people – Under this department, Firoz Shah used to listen to the troubles of his people and used to solve their problems, therefore Firoz Shah is also called Akbar of Delhi Sultanate.

Translation Department – This department was built to translate Indian books into the Persian language, And Persian book to Indian languages

He had also established an Employment Bureau and a Marriage bureau.

 

Work

Cities – He constructed more than 300 cities. Some famous cities are Hissar, Fatehabad, Jaunpur, Firozpur, and Firozabad

Canals – He built many small and some big canals to help farmers apart from this he built many ponds and wells to promote irrigation. But to use these canals Farmers had to pay 10 percent of tax.

Orchards – He had built more than 1200 fruit orchards in which thousands of plants were planted by him, he also tried to increase the quality of fruits to make them more tasty and nutritious.

Wells – He constructed more than 150 wells in nearby villages to fulfill the water requirement.

Bridges – He had built more than 100 bridges over the canals to make people’s journeys easier.

Dams – More than 50 dams were built by Feroz Shah Tughlaq to prevent the water of the rivers from going into the fields in large quantities.

The pillars of Ashoka – He had uprooted the Ashoka pillar from Meerut to Delhi.

fatwah-i Firoz-shahi – Firoz shah Tughlaq was educated so he wrote his autobiography which is known as fatwah I Firoz shahi.

 

Firoz Shah Tughlaq death

Feroze Shah Tughlaq died in the year 1388 AD and Feroze was buried in the Hauz Khas complex in Delhi.

The successor of Firoz Shah Tughlaq was Muhammed khan

 

Muhammad Khan

After the death of Firoz Shah Tughlaq in the year 1388, Muhammad Khan came to power but he could not rule for long as Muhammad Khan was assassinated within a few days.

 

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq Shah II

After the death of Muhammad Khan in the year 1388, Firoz Shah Tughlaq’s grandson Ghiyasuddin Muhammad II came to power, But he was also assassinated within five months after becoming the ruler.

 

Abu Bakr shah

Abu Bakr killed Ghiyasuddin Muhammad Tughlaq in the year 1389 and declared himself as the ruler of Delhi.

 

Nasiruddin Muhammad Tughlaq

In the year 1390, the top officials of Multan, Lahore, and Samana removed Abu Bakr from the throne of Delhi and declared Nasiruddin Muhammad Shah as the ruler of Delhi, after this Muhammad Shah ruled from 1390 to 1394.

 

Humayun

Humayun was the son of Nasiruddin Muhammad Shah and he sat on the throne of Delhi for three months after the death of his father.

 

Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah

Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah was the last ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty, he ruled from 1395 to 1412.

 

End of Tughlaq dynasty

All the rulers after Firoz Shah Tughlaq were weak. They could not rule well and during their reign, most of the territories were become independent except for Punjab and Delhi, and when Timur ended the Tughlaq dynasty.

 

Taimur Invision on Tughlaq dynasty

Taimur came to India for the first time in the year 1398 and was attracted by the treasury of India. When Taimur went back to his country after plundering India, he left a man named Khizr Khan in Delhi, and then Khizr Khan established the Sayyid Dynasty.

 

Tughlaq dynasty Map

Tughlaq dynasty map

 

Tughlaq dynasty architecture

No. Architecture Build by
1 Tughlaqabad City Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
2 Adilabad fort Muhammad bin Tughlaq
3 Begumpuri Mosque Muhammad bin Tughlaq
4 Tomb of Ghiyasuddin Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
5 kali Mosque Firoz Shah
6 Vijay Mandal Muhammad bin Tughlaq
7 Tomb of Telangani Firoz Shah
8 Jahanpanah city Muhammad bin Tughlaq
9 Swargadwari Town Muhammad bin Tughlaq
10  Kushk-i-Shikar Firoz Shah
11 khirki Mosque Firoz Shah
12 Kotla firoz shah Firoza Shah
13 Barakhamba Muhammad bin Tughlaq
14 Lotus Mosque Firoz Shah
15 kabiruddin auliya tomb Firoz Shah
16 Firoz Shah Tomb Firoz Shah

 

Tughlaq dynasty UPSC

Tughlaq Dynasty is very important from the point of view of the UPSC exam, so read the questions and answers given below carefully.

 

What was the original name of Gayasuddin Tughlaq?

Ghazi malik or Ghazi bag Tughlaq

 

Which ruler first promoted agricultural production?

Gayasuddin Tughlaq

 

Which city was built by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq?

Tughlaqabad

 

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq did not have good relations with which saint of the Chishti sect?

Nizamuddin auliya

 

Who long did Muhammad bin Tughlaq ruled?

1325 to 1351

 

What was the original name of Muhammad bin Tughlaq?

Fakhr Malik Jauna Khan

 

Who laid the foundation of the independent city of Vijayanagar under the rule of Muhammad bin Tughlaq?

Harihar and Bukka

 

Where did Muhammad bin Tughlaq transfer his capital to?

Daulatabad

 

Who had spent 17 years in Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s palace?

Ziauddin barani

 

Which department was established by Muhammad bin Tughlaq for the development of agriculture?

Diwan e Kohi

 

Whom did Muhammad bin Tughlaq send as his ambassador to the court of Togan Timur the ruler of China?

Ibn battuta

 

Which Chinese ruler had sent his ambassador in Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s court in 1341?

Togan Timur

 

What was the time of Firoz Shah Tughlaq’s reign?

1351 to 1388

 

Where Muhammad bin Tughlaq was died?

Thatta

 

Who became the ruler of Delhi after Muhammad bin Tughlaq?

Firoz Shah Tughlaq

 

Who was the first Muslim ruler born from a Hindu mother?

Firoz Shah Tughlaq

 

Which department was established by Firoz shah to help poor

Diwan-i-khairat

 

What are the four types of Tax which were imposed by Firoz Shah Tughlaq

Kharaj tax, Khams tax, Jazya tax, and Zakat tax

 

Abraham

I am Abraham, the founder of Knowledgeneed. I live in New Delhi, India. I completed my education in 2018. I write topics from social science and issues. Such as history, biographies, Battles, Geopolitics etc.

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