History of Slave Dynasty
Slave dynasty was the third dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, this dynasty is also known as Mamluk dynasty, this dynasty ruled from the year 1206 to 1290.
Founder of Slave Dynasty
The foundation of the Slave Dynasty was laid in the year 1206 by Qutubuddin Aibak, He was a slave of Mohammad Gauri, but the Dynasty was fully expanded by Sultan Iltutmish.
Why Mamluk dynasty is called as slave dynasty?
This dynasty is called a Slave dynasty because all its rulers were slaves of some one like Qutubuddin Aibak was a slave of Muhammad Ghori and a slave of Qutubuddin Aibak was Iltutmish and Iltutmish’s slave was Ghiyasuddin Balban.
Slave Dynasty Rulers
- Qutubuddin Aibak
- Aram shah
- Shamsuddin Iltutmish
- Ruknuddin Firoz
- Razia Sultan
- Bahram shah
- Alauddin Masud shah
- Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah
- Ghiyasuddin Balban
- Muizuddin Qaiqabad
Aibak was the first ruler of the Slave dynasty and he and belong to a Turkish tribe, In childhood, he used to live in Nishapur then a merchant bought him as a slave from Nishapur after that Muhammad ghori bought him from the merchant.
Qutubuddin Aibak was a loyal slave of Muhammad ghori and it is said that Muhammad ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan with help of aibak, therefore he was called a loyal slave of Ghori, and when ghori decided to leave India, he gave all his conquered land to Aibak.
Aibak declared his capital to Lahore because all the Invaders used to attacks from the Lahore side.
There was a tradition in the Islamic empire, that if any Muslim wants to become a ruler, so he must have the permission of the caliphate, but aibak did not take any permission from the caliphate, without permission he ruled for 4 years.
Qutubuddin aibak is also known as Lakh Baksh because he used to donate generously.
Aibak was a good visionary leader, he built a mosque in Delhi which is known as Quwwat ul Islam besides he built Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra Mosque in Ajmer city of Rajasthan.
In 1210, Qutub Uddin died while playing Chogan, he was fallen from a horse while playing.
Qutubuddin Aibak remains the ruler of the Slave dynasty from 1206 to 1210.
In 1210 Because of the sudden death of Qutubuddin aibak, Aram Shah ascended the throne and became the second ruler of the Slave dynasty.
Soon after Aaram Shah became the ruler, the Turkish nobles sent an invitation to Shamsuddin Iltutmish to come to Delhi and rule. Although Shamsuddin Iltutmish was a slave of Qutbuddin and was also the son-in-law of Qutubuddin Aibak.
When Aram Shah came to know that Iltutmish is coming to Delhi to fight him, Aram Shah prepared his army for war, and then the war of Aram Shah and Iltutmish was fought near Delhi, in which Iltutmish won.
Iltutmish took permission from the caliphate, and he made the slave dynasty strong by making a strong army, he had declared his capital to Delhi, many historians believe that Iltutmish was the real founder of the Slave dynasty.
He provided land to farmers in exchange for tax.
Iltutmish founded the (Amir-i-chahlgani) group. All members in this group used to be close to Iltutmish and all of them used to be loyal to Iltutmish. There were a total of 40 members in the group, also known as the Turkish Nobel because it consisted mostly of Turkish people.
He introduced Silver coins, which used to know as Tanka, and another coin was made of copper which used to known as Jital, and the Arabic language was written on both these coins.
The construction of Qutub Minar was completed by Iltutmish because Aibak died when Qutub Minar was being built.
The most famous king of the Mongol empire Genghis Khan attacked India from the Lahore side, but his attack was unsuccessful.
He ruled from 1210 or 1211 to 1236.
Ruknuddin Firoz was the son of Iltutmish, and he became the ruler after Iltutmish’s death, although Iltutmish declared his daughter Razia Sultan as the ruler before his death.
The Turkish nobles helped Rukanuddin to become the ruler. They did not want Razia to become the ruler, so they chose Rukanuddin Firoz. Although Ruknuddin Firoz was not eligible to rule, Turkish nobles did not want to make Razia a ruler because Razia was a woman.
Ruknuddin Firoz’s reign lasted from April/May 1236 to November 1236, and he died in 1236.
Razia Sultan’s reign lasted from 1236 to 1240.
Razia was the first female ruler of India, she used to rule like her father Iltutmish, she used to wear dresses like a male ruler, due to this behavior many people of her empire were against her.
Due to her behavior Turkish nobels of the slave dynasty were divided into two parts, Supporters and the Opponent, then the opponent people of razia invited Malik Altunia, the ruler of Bhatinda.
Then Malik Altunia killed Yaqut who was close to Razia, However, altunia also took Razia captive. Altunia was one of the influential people of his time.
Razia pursued diplomacy and married Altunia who had brought her captive and started living in Bhatinda.
Razia Sultan was in Bhatinda with Altunia and the throne of Delhi was empty, because of this golden opportunity her brother Bahram Shah ascended the throne of Delhi.
When Altunia and Razia come to know about this, they decided to return to Delhi but before they come to Delhi, both Razia and Altunia were killed, historians believe that they were killed by Bahram Shah.
The reign of Bahram shah lasted from 1240 to 1242.
He was the grandson of Iltutmish, and Delhi ruled by him only for four years from 1242 AD to 1246 AD.
He ruled from 1246 to 1268.
There was nothing changed in the empire during the reign of Alauddin and Nasiruddin, the empire was the same as Razia Sultan’s leave.
The reign of Balban was from 1266 to 1287, Balban was one of the most influential men among 40 Turkish nobels, and he was highly knowledgeable.
Balban’s full name was Ghiyasuddin balban, his daughter married Nasruddin Mahmoud in 1249, Nasiruddin was happy after the marriage, therefore he nominated his father-in-law with the title of Ulugh khan
He called himself (Zille ilahi) which means Shadow of God
He believed that the king’s first job is to be autocratic, and therefore he established very difficult governance, he killed many people to save his empire.
He created an army division which used to known as Diwan-i-Arz
To enforce his honor he imposed a variety of laws on his people such as Sijda and Paibos
SIJDA – People have to kneel and touch the ground from their heads in front of the Sultan to greet him, However, it’s a sin in Islam to bow down in front of anyone except God.
PAIBOS – People must have to kiss his feet to show that they respect him.
Balban introduced a Persian festival Navroz in India and also saved India from Mongols.
Two poets Amir Khusrow and Amir Hasan used to live in Balban’s mansion, and balban died in 1287.
He was not capable to control the slave dynasty therefore he ruled only for three years from 1287 to 1290.
He was the son of Qaiqabad and grandson of Balban
Kayumars could not rule for a long time because he was killed in the same year when he started to rule in 1290, and after his death, the Khilji Dynasty was established.
Slave dynasty Architecture
- Qutub mosque
- Qutub Minar
- Screen at Qutub mosque
- Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra
- Tomb of Iltutmish
Slave Dynasty map
Slave Dynasty UPSC
Balban started Nowruz the famous Parsi festival in India.
Ghiyasyddin Balban holds a grand title called Zil-i-ilahi after becoming a ruler.
Balban was an autocratic ruler.
Turkish Nobels were responsible for removing Razia Sultan from power.
Iltutmish appoints Malik Jani as the first governor in Bihar.
Temujin is the original name of Genghis Khan.
Mongols invade India under Genghis Khan In the reign of Iltutmish.
Razia Sultan was the first woman ruler of India.
Iltutmish is known as a slave of a slave.
Iltutmish first transferred his capital to Delhi.
Qutubuddin aibak was died While playing Polo.
Lahore was the capital of Qutubuddin Aibak.
Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra is a mosque.
Qutubuddin aibak used to call as lakh Baksh.
Muhammad Ghori gave his first territory in India to Qutubuddin aibak.
King Jayachandra was defeated by Mohammad Ghori in the battle of Chandavar.
Al biruni was the first Muslim to study Puranas.
Firdausi was the author of Shahnama.