HistorySayyid Dynasty | History, Rulers, Upsc, facts

Sayyid Dynasty | History, Rulers, Upsc, facts

Sayyid Dynasty


Sayyid dynasty History

The Sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate and its founder was Khizr Khan. The four rulers of this dynasty ruled Delhi from the years 1414 to 1451.


Sayyid dynasty Information

Government Sultanate
Capital Delhi
Religion Islam
Reign 1414 to 1451
Historical era Medieval
Language Persian
Today part of India and Pakistan


Sayyid Dynasty Rulers

No. Ruler Name Reign
1 Khizr Khan 1414 to 1421
2 Mubarak Shah 1421 to 1434
3 Muhammad Shah 1334 to 1443
4 Alam Shah 1443 to 1451


Khizr khan

Khizr Khan also came to India for the first time in the year 1998 with Timur.

After the death of Nasiruddin Mahmud, the last ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty in the year 1414, Khizr Khan took over the throne of Delhi, although Khizr Khan did not declare himself a sultan because at that time Delhi’s governance was weak, and he gave himself the title of Riyyat Al-Ala (Head of Farmers).

When Timur had returned from India, he entrusted the throne of Dipalpur, Lahore, and Multan to Khizr Khan and after this Multan, Sindh, and Punjab also became part of the Delhi Sultanate of Delhi.

After the death of Timur, Khizr Khan continued to send revenue to Timur’s son Shah Rukh and apart from this, Khizr Khan also taught the Kutbah by the name of Shahrukh in mosques but he used coins in the name of Tughlaq rulers during his reign.

Khizr Khan chose a person named Malik Tohfa as his minister and gave him the title of Taj-ul-Mulk.

During his reign, khizr Khan suppressed the rebellion in Mewat, Badaun, Bayana, Etawah, Khor, and Jalesar.

Khizr Khan died on 20 May 1421 and after his death, people mourned by wearing black clothes.


Mubarak Shah

Mubarak Shah was the son of Khizr Khan and he became the Sultan of Delhi in the year 1421 after the death of his father. and he gave himself the title of “Shah” as soon as he became Sultan.

Mubarak Shah was a secular king and he was also the most qualified ruler of the Sayyid dynasty. His wazir (Minister) was a Hindu.

Mubarak Shah had also taught his name in khutbah, in the mosque, and got his name inscribed on coins.

During his reign, Mubarak Shah had carried out legal proceedings several times in the north-eastern regions of Mewat and Katehar but did not get any achievement.

Mubarak suppressed the rebellion in the areas of Doaba and Bathinda during his reign



  • In the year 1434, Mubarakabad was built by Mubarak Shah on the banks of the river Yamuna.
  • He introduced coins from his name
  • He taught khutbah in his name
  • During his reign (Yahya bin Ahmad Sirhind) wrote his biography (Tarikh e Mubarak Shai).



Mubarak Shah was killed by his minister Sarwar ul Mulk on February 19 in the year 1434.


Muhammad Shah

Muhammad Shah’s real name was Muhammed bin Kharid Khan and he was the nephew of Mubarak Shah.

Muhammad Shah was declared Sultan by his uncle’s murderer Sarwar ul Mulk. Muhammed Shah did not change much during his reign as he was the only nominal ruler and Sarwar ul Mulk had all the powers of the sultanate.

A few days later when Muhammed Shah began to take power under his control, Sarwar ul Mulk started plotting to kill him but as soon as Muhammad Shah came to know about the conspiracy of Sarwar-al-Mulk, he killed Sarwar-al-Mulk. and declared Kamal-al-Mulk as the new minister.

During the reign of Muhammad Shah, the ruler of Jaunpur took many cities under his control, and Delhi was also attacked by the ruler of Malwa but the ruler of Multan and Lahore helped Muhammad Shah and saved Delhi.

Mohammad Shah had given the title of food and food to Bahlol Khan, the ruler of Multan and Lahore, and thanked him, besides he called Bahlol Khan Lodhi as his son.

Muhammad Shah died in 1445


Alam Shah

Alam Shah’s real name was Alauddin. He was the son of Muhammad Shah and also the last Sultan of the Sayyid Dynasty.

Alam Shah was the last ruler of the Sayyid Dynasty and also the weakest ruler because during his reign only Delhi and the villages around Delhi were left in the Delhi Sultanate.

Alam shah transferred his capital from Delhi to badaun due to fear of Bahlul khan Lodi.

After some time Alam Shah quarreled with his minister, so his minister Hamid Amir Khan invited Lahore’s Governor Bahlol Lodi, to rule Delhi, and after this Bahlol Lodi worked as Alam Shah’s representative for a few days.

In the year 1451, Alam Shah himself handed over the throne of Delhi to Bahlol Lodi and Alam Shah went to Badaun, after this Bahlol Lodi established the Lodi Dynasty.



Alam Shah died in Badaun in the year 1476.


Sayyid Dynasty Architecture

During the entire reign of the Sayyid Dynasty, only the tomb of Mubarak Sayyid was built.


Sayyid Dynasty Map

Sayyid dynasty Map

Sayyid Dynasty facts

It is an interesting fact that Khizr Khan, the ruler of the Sayyid Dynasty, considered himself a descendant of Prophet Muhammad, while according to Islam, no descendant of Prophet Muhammad was left alive before Khizr khan.


Sayyid Dynasty UPSC

Khizr Khan was the founder and Fareed khan Never become a ruler but his children Muhammad shah and Alam shah ruled the dynasty.

Khizr khan was the descendant of the Mongol and he came to Delhi with Taimur lang.

Historian says that after looting Delhi Taimur lang handed Multan, Lahore, and few more nearby areas to khizr khan which are now situated in Pakistan, but Khizr khan was not satisfied with Lahore and Multan therefore he decided to occupied Delhi.


Also read

Razia Sultan

Khilji Dynasty


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