Salahuddin Ayyubi | Biography, History, Battles

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Salahuddin Ayyubi

 

Who was Salahuddin Ayyubi

Salahuddin Ayyubi was one of the greatest warrior in the history of Islamic civilization across the world, he conquered Jerusalem, he defeated the Crusaders, And during his reign, he did very good things for his people, due to which he also got respect from the Crusaders and Even today his heroic history is taught in schools in the Western world.

He ruled present-day Israel, Palestine, Yemen, Egypt, Upper Mesopotamia, Syria, a few parts of Africa and turkey, and established Ayyub Dynasty, although Sultan Salahuddin ayyubi fought many wars but his most famous war was against the Christian Crusaders for holy land Jerusalem.

He was the true follower of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and Salahuddin Ayyubi is famous for his Bravery, statesmanship, Justice, Mercy, Tolerance, and as a brilliant military leader and soldier.

 

Salahuddin Ayyubi history

Salahuddin Ayyubi was born in Iraq in the year 1137 at a place called Tikrit and his real name was Yusuf and Salahuddin was a title which means (Righteousness of the faith).

In Salahuddin’s life, he was most influenced by a scholar named Sheikh Abdul Qadir Gilani who taught him about his Religion.

Salahuddin Ayyubi’s father’s name was Najmuddin Ayyub and he was a kind-hearted person. In the year 1132, when Najmuddin Ayyub found a defeated army near the Tigris River, then he sheltered that defeated army in his area of ‚Äč‚ÄčTikrit.

According to Anne-Marie Edde and Al-Wahrani, Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi had knowledge of Almagest, Arithmetic, Science, Law, and he also studied books of Maths written by Euclid, but his most interest was in reading and understanding the Holy Quran.

 

Military Career

Salahuddin Ayubi was well versed in religion as well as in military activities and his military career began under the leadership of his uncle Asad al-din Shirukh and his uncle was the commander of Nuruddin Zangi.

 

Sultan of Egypt and Syria

After the death of Salahuddin’s uncle in the year 1169, Nuruddin Zangi appointed Salahuddin as his Vazir and also appointed him as a commander of the Syrian army.

At the age of 31, Salahuddin was appointed as the commander against Fatimid Caliph, and later he received the title (Malik) from Nuruddin Zangi and become the ruler of Egypt.

After the death of Nuruddin Zangi in the year 1174, Salahuddin became the king of Syria and used Egyptian money to conquered Christian kingdoms.

Salahuddin Ayyubi
Salahuddin Ayyubi and Crusaders

In the year 638, Omar bin Khattab, the second caliphate of the Muslims, had won Jerusalem, and till the year 1099 Muslims ruled Jerusalem peacefully.

But in 1099, the European Crusaders, also known as the Knight Templars, had conquered Jerusalem from the Muslims and killed all the Muslim Women, children, and old men in Jerusalem.

Christian historian Christopher Tyerman wrote in his book (God’s War: A new history of the Crusaders) that the European Crusaders killed Muslims in such a way that horses were swimming in the blood of Muslims.

But within 88 years Sultan Salahuddin united all Muslims and started a jihad against the Christian Crusaders.

In the year 1187, in the battle of Hattin, Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi surrounded Jerusalem from all sides and Christian leader Balian was well aware that Salahuddin would take Jerusalem in his possession.

Therefore Christian leader Balian spoke to Sultan Salauddin during the war and threatened Salauddin that if his demand for surrender will not be fulfilled, he would kill more than 5000 Muslims present in Jerusalem. Had made it clear that Balian had no concern with the Christian presence in the city.

Salahuddin Ayyubi was a religious man and believed Muhammed very much, so he did not want that any innocent’s blood flowed on the streets of Jerusalem, therefore Balian and his army were allowed to surrender, but Salahuddin had laid down a condition that whoever surrendered would have to pay very little ransom to the Sultan, by doing so, the Sultan saved 5000 Muslims as well as Christians living in the city from the anger of the Muslim army.

 

He freed prisoners of war

Sultan Salahuddin had forgiven and released more than 12 hundred Christian prisoners along with Balian, and after being inspired by Sultan Salahuddin’s generosity, his brother Al-Adil also released more than a thousand Christian prisoners from the prison.

This 12th-century act is still recorded in the books and it shows that Salahuddin was a kind-hearted person.

 

Paid to enemy soldiers

Malcolm Cameron Lyons wrote in his book (Saladin: The Politics of the Holy War) that the Christian leader had signed an agreement with Salahuddin, under which any soldier could leave the city by giving ransom to the sultan, many rich soldiers paid the Ranson and had left the city.

But the poor soldiers could not leave the city. When the family members of the poor soldiers spoke to Sultan Salauddin, then he showed kindness and gave money to the poor soldiers from his pocket.

 

He protect Churches

When Salahuddin conquered Jerusalem, he was advised by his advisors to destroy all the churches in Jerusalem, but Salahuddin respected all religions, so he did not harm any of the churches in Jerusalem.

In the 12th century, when someone used to win the war, so they used to loot all the property there and set it on fire, but Sultan Salahuddin did not do so.

 

Religious Freedom

Jerusalem is a holy place for Muslims, Christians, and Jews, but when the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem, they killed thousands of Muslims and Jews and prevented them from praying, but when Sultan Salahuddin won Jerusalem, he gave freedom to all Christian, Muslims, and Jews to follow their religion.

 

Salahuddin Ayyubi and King Richard

Richard was a crusader leader. He fell ill before the war and when Salahuddin came to know about Richard’s illness, he sent his physician and fruits to Richard and wished him to recover soon.

When there was a war between Richard and Salahuddin, Salahuddin captured more than 10 Crusader leaders along with Richard, all of those leaders were badly thirsty, so Salahuddin himself watered all those leaders except Richard. But a crusader leader gave his remaining water to Richard.

After this Salahuddin had told Richard that I did not give you water because in my culture we do not kill a person whom we offer water.

Then he told Richard that I had vowed to kill you twice, First time when you disrespected prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and attacked Muslim people who were going to perform Hajj and, and the second time when you tried to attack Mecca, but due to bad weather conditions, you could not reach Mecca.

After telling all these things Salahuddin had cut Richard’s neck with his sword, after seeing this, the rest of the Crusader leaders were terrified, Salahuddin told all those leaders that do not be afraid you are the leaders therefore you will be treated like leaders. I killed Richard because he has crossed his limit.

Salahuddin Ayyubi
How did Salahuddin Ayyubi died

Salahuddin Ayyubi died of fever in Damascus on 4 March 1193. At the time of his death, Salahuddin’s financial condition was not good because he had given his treasure to the poor. He had only 50 pieces of silver and 1 piece of gold.

He died in such poverty that there was no money left for his funeral.

He was buried in the garden outside the Umayyad Mosque in the capital of Syria, Damascus.

 

Salahuddin Ayyubi Facts

Salahuddin Ayyubi was born on the same night when his father left Damascus.

He was a Hafiz. He had memorized the complete Quran at the age of 15.

Salahuddin Ayyubi had an unwavering belief in the religion of Islam but could not perform Hajj even once in his life because he had no money and used to give all his money to the poor.

His full name was Salahuddin Yusuf Ibn Ayyub.

 

Salahuddin Ayyubi Quotes

No one can beat the Nation whose youth is alert.

An army without youth and youth without an army can easily become the victim of the enemy army.

I don’t care about Salbis, but I care about those Muslims who are fond of alcohol.

The mosque Al-Aqsa is occupied by the Salbis then how can I eat?, how can I drink?, how can I sleep?.

A lion doesn’t care what the jackal thinks about him.

If a nation has to be defeated in war, then hatred spread among the people of that country, they will fight and die among themselves.

If a leader cares about his life from fear of death then he is not enough to protect Nation.

Where bread becomes costlier than the wages of the laborer, so there are two things cheaper, respect for the woman and honor of the man.

Whether Islam spread from the fear of sword or not, but I believed the sword is necessary for the protection of Islam.

 

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