Who was Razia sultan
Razia Sultan was the first female ruler of India, also she was the first Muslim female ruler in the history of Islamic civilization across the world, Her full name was Raziya al-Din, Popularly known as Razia sultana and she was born in 1205 in Badaun.
Father of Razia sultan
Razia Sultan’s father name was Iltutmish, historians believe that he was the actual founder of the Delhi sultanate, Iltutmish raised his daughter to be a bold young girl, She used to train alongside her three brothers in governance and military welfare.
Iltutmish used to consider his daughter equal to his twenty sons that’s why he trained her from childhood by himself in welfare, administration, and statesmanship, even at that time he didn’t decide to appoint Razia as his successor, However, When Iltutmish went to Gwalior for a campaign at that time he left her as Delhi in-charge.
Her father Iltutmish had declared her as his successor before his death in 1233, but after his death, 40 Turkish Nobel did not allow her to rule, however, she sat on the throne with the support of local public.
Razia Sultan dynasty
She belongs to the slave dynasty which is also known as the mamluk dynasty, Razia was the fifth ruler of it, and this dynasty ruled from 1206 to 1290.
Razia Sultan history
In 1236, She dressed in red and demanded justice, because the red color in the Delhi Sultanate was a symbol of justice.
She narrates the atrocities of Shahturkin and Rukunuddin Feroze shah among the public after Friday prayers, after which the angry people of Delhi Sultanate attacked Shahturkin and Rukunuddin Ferozeshah and imprisoned them, after that she ordered to kill Rukunuddin Ferozeshah who was also her brother.
She came to power after Rukunuddin Firoz shah died and became queen by holding the title of Sultan.
As soon as she became the ruler, she began to put an end to her enemies, therefore she appointed her supporters to a higher position.
She was a Muslim woman who learned to fence, archery along with horse riding and used to wear men’s clothes in her court.
Several conspiracies were hatched against her, in those conspiracies, her close people were involved, and also many high officials of the province wanted to remove her from the throne.
Apart from this, Kabir Khan the ruler of Lahore, and Malik Altunia the ruler of Bathinda, were also conspiring against her.
Conspirators did not know that they could not defeat Razia in her citadel, her defeat was only possible outside of her territory.
Conspirators planned such that she could be taken out. According to that plan in 1240 AD, Kabir Khan had revolted in Lahore, to suppress this rebellion, she reached Lahore and defeated Kabir Khan.
She returned to Delhi again and another rebellion took place within 15 days of her return to the capital, but that time Altunia the ruler of Bhatinda had revolted and at that time she could not save herself from the trap of conspirators.
Her most loyal advisor was shot as soon as she reached Bhatinda, after the death of the advisor, she was also captured by malik altunia and imprisoned in April 1240 AD.
Razia Sultan work
- She was a skilled ruler she established complete law and order in her region.
- She encouraged trade during her reign as well as the construction of roads and wells.
- She tried to improve the infrastructure of the country by building schools and libraries and she had also contributed to the field of art, culture and encouraged poets, painters, and musicians.
- She was a brave lady that she used to lead her horse into the battlefield without any fear.
- Many Muslims were not happy because had banned the veil system.
Razia Sultan love story
It is said that she was in love with her advisor Jamal ud-Din Yaqut, who was an African slave but later he was turned close to her, Razia and Yakut was in love but Turkish Nobels were against it because she was a queen and Yakut was a slave, but the majority of historians says it was a rumor about her, Yakut was nothing but a trustworthy man.
Few historians believe that people were not accepting their relationship because Yakut was not Turkish also he was an officer who used to handle horses, because of that high authorities were not accepting him.
Razia’s husband was Malik altunia, also they were childhood friend, Altunia was the ruler of Bhatinda and Bengal, Malik altunia was in love with razia, but it was one side love, Altunia attacked Delhi and killed Razia’s advisor Yakut, and captured her.
Then she got married to Malik altunia, it is said that she married him to save her empire but she was still in love with Yakut.
It is also believed that one of the graves near the tomb of Razia is that of her lover.
And historians are not unanimous about the grave of Razia and her lover, some historians claims their grave is in Rajasthan, some claims their grave is in Haryana and some says their grave is in Delhi.
How did the razia sultan die
The successes of razia led to her downfall she was little against Turkish Nobels.
When she moved on to become the autocratic ruler (Against Turkish Nobel) the Turkish nobles tried to stop her, Turkish authorities had a military power of their own.
In the year 1240 AD, Altunia defeated her and put her in prison.
After she was imprisoned, Iltutmish’s son Muiz ud din Bahram shah was ascended on the throne, at the time when Bahram has ascended on the throne Altunia did not get the position as he wished to sit on the throne of Delhi, To take revenge for his dissatisfaction In August 1240 AD, she was freed from Bhatinda jail and married to Altunia.
After married, Altunia and Razia again set out to conquer Delhi but they were defeated by Razia’s brother Bahram’s army, after being defeated their soldiers also abandoned them and they were both forced to return to Bathinda.
On October 14, 1240, the bandits killed them both near Kaithal, some historians also believe that she was killed by the top officials of her kingdom because those people did not like her for being a woman.
Razia Sultan tomb
The tomb of Razia Sultan is claimed to be three places, First is Rajasthan’s Kota Second Haryana’s Kaithal, and third Turkman Gate of Delhi.
Historians and the majority of the people believe that her tomb is situated at Turkman gate, Chandni chowk old Delhi 110006 because she was from Delhi.
There’s one more tomb beside her tomb it is said, that tomb belong to Yakut, who was her advisor.
It is said that where the tomb is today, it used to be a hill station. But over time her tomb also came down the narrow streets as the houses were built.
The tomb is protected by ASI (The Archaeological Survey of India).
Razia Sultan Achievements
- She was the first Muslim and first Indian women who ascended the throne.
- She earned the trust of her local people which helped her to become a queen.
- She was a brave lady who knew Horse riding, archery, and fencing due to which she was her father’s favorite while she had 3 other brothers but still her father choose Razia as his successor.
- She built School, Road, libraries, and the well.
- In the year 1240 AD when Kabir Khan revolted against Razia in Lahore, then she went to Lahore and defeated him.