Qutubuddin Aibak | History, Family, Achievements
Who was Qutubuddin aibak
Qutubuddin Aibak’s childhood name was Aibak he was born to Turkic parents in Turkistan in the year 1150, he was sold in childhood as a slave, along with it, he was the first emperor who laid the foundation of the Slave Dynasty of Delhi sultanate
Qutubuddin aibak history
Firstly in childhood aibak was bought by the local Qazi (Magistrate) of Persia, After that Muhammad ghori bought him from Persian qazi for his military services then aibak started to work for Muhammad ghori.
He was such a munificent and loyal commander because of his loyalty Muhammad ghori conferred him with the title of (Amir i akhur) which means (The Master of Slave) because he had the potential to handle all other slaves.
In the year 1175 Muhammad ghori attacked Multan which is now located in Pakistan.
In 1176 Ghori attacked some region and till the year 1182, he conquered the entire Indus.
In these all expedition Qutub Uddin was with him wherever Muhammed ghori attacked, Aibak played such a big role in all expedition of Ghori.
Because of this reason he got Malik’s position and became the military commander.
In the year 1191, the First Battle of tarain happened between Prithviraj Chauhan and Muhammad in which Muhammad ghori was defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan, Then again in 1192 second battle of tarain took place in which Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by Muhammad ghori, In these battle, Aibak played a great role.
After that battle Muhammad ghori went back to Afghanistan for few times of period because he had to handle his previous region, Latter on Qutbuddin started to expand his empire sometimes by diplomacy and sometimes by attacking all the kings and captured Ganga and Yamuna.
Invision to India
He started an expedition against Rajput and Kept his expedition going on from 1195 to 1203.
In the year 1197 Qutbuddin attacked a place called Anhilwara in Gujarat.
He defeated Jaichand of kannauj in the Battle of Chandawar which was fought between 1193 to 1195 AD.
In the year 1197, He defeated Bhim II of Anhilwara and took control over Banaras, and conquered Utter Pradesh, Punjab, and Badaun.
In the year 1203, He took control over the fort of Kalinjar and conquered all the region of Bundelkhand, it was a great achievement.
Death of Ghori
In the month of March in 1206, Muhammad ghori was assassinated by someone, who killed him its still a mystery.
Muhammad ghori had three important generals, Tajuddin Yalduz, Nasiruddin Qabacha and Qutubuddin aibak.
He was made governor of Indian Provinces because he was the most loyal slave to ghori meanwhile Tajuddin Yalduz held the region of Afghanistan and Nasiruddin Qabacha held the region of Uchch in Sindh.
After that Aibak wanted to be free from slavery because he was a slave of ghori so he received a kind of document called Manumission from Ghori’s nephew Sultan Ghiyasuddin Mahmud of ghor.
Because Muhammad Ghori had no son hence his nephew Sultan Ghiyasuddin Mahmud of Ghur gave him a Manumission document and said to him that you are no longer a slave now you are free, That’s how Qutbuddin become the first sultan of the Slave Dynasty and laid the foundation Delhi Sultan.
His capital was Lahore which is now located in Pakistan.
Legacy of Qutubuddin Aibak
One of the best characteristics of Qutubuddin aibak was loyalty, he never denied a single command of his owner in every expedition he was with him because of his loyalty he was the most trustworthy person of Muhammad ghori.
He was tremendously courageous and always used to ready for any battle anywhere to anybody.
Aibak was a man of justice along with this he was a great deployment and it’s believed that he had practical wisdom.
One of the important that makes him unique is that he was a sufficient soldier and a calamity commander it’s believed all the Battles that Muhammad ghori won are because of his generals and aibak was the main.
Also read – Tughlaq dynasty
Qutubuddin aibak Achievements
Due to foundation, he got the name Hatim
He used to distribute generously so people Named him Lakh Baksh because he used to donate to millions of people
He was a skilled reader of the Quran so he was told as Quran Khan
Mohammad Gauri conferred Qutubuddin aibak with three titles
- The supervisor
- The King
- The administrators in chief
Qutbuddin Aibak court poet
Qutbuddin Aibak had two poets in his court.
TheFirst poet was named Farukh Mudin his composition is Alsujata.
The second poet was Hasan Nizam and his composition is Taj ul Masir.
Monuments built by Qutubuddin Aibak
Qutub Minar – Qutubuddin Aibak started building Qutub Minar in 1199, Aibak had already built the first floor and the remaining 4 floors were built by his son-in-law Iltutmish.
The fourth floor of Qutub Minar was damaged by Firoz Shah Tughlaq two times however again he built 2 more floors Qutub Minar, There are a total of 5 floors in Total Qutub Minar and the height of Qutub Minar is 72 meters.
Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra – Was built by him in the city of Rajasthan in Ajmer.
Quwwat ul Islam Mosque – It has been built in Delhi by demolishing the Jain temple.
He built some mosques.
Qutubuddin Family and Governance Policy
Qutbuddin formed family ties to protect himself with the ruler of Ghazni so married Tajuddin Yalduz’s daughter and became safe with him because aibak wanted to earn Yalduz’s trust
Aibak married his sister with Nasiruddin Qabacha the ruler of Uchch, Sindh to become safer
Lastly, Qutubuddin Aibak married his daughter with his slave Iltutmish and become safer, This he used diplomacy
How Qutubuddin Aibak died
As ruler Qutbuddin Aibak died in 1210 at the age of 60 years, in Kashi while playing Chowgan also known as polo on a horse and his tomb is now located in Anarkali, Lahore of Pakistan.
Qutubuddin aibak wife
Aibak was married to Nasiruddin Qabacha’s daughter but her correct name isn’t found yet though however historians believed that aibak wife name was Shamshad begum
Qutubuddin Aibak son
Aibak had a son whose name was Aram Shah who ruled from 1210 to 1211 because he was died in 1211.
Qutubuddin aibak daughter
His daughter name was Turkman Khatun known as Qutub Begum who married Aibak’s slave Iltutmish she was the mother of India’s first female ruler Razia Sultan, Qutub Begum died in 1236.
Also read – Sultan Alauddin Khilji (Defender of India)
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