In today’s modern time, almost every citizen of India knows that the British had ruled India for a long time. Many revolutionaries had sacrificed their lives happily for the independence of India.
There were many revolutions for the independence of India, which were supported by all Indians. Quit India movement was also a type of revolution, which was started by Mahatma Gandhi.
Due to this movement, the British government was greatly weakened and the British also came to know that they could not last long in India.
Beginning of the Quit India Movement
The Quit India Movement was started by the Bombay Session of the All India Congress Committee on 8 August 1942, and the main leader who led this movement was Mahatma Gandhi. Although second world war was also going on at that time.
During this movement, Mahatma Gandhi had said in a speech that ‘do or die’. And the purpose of this movement was India’s independence.
At that time, some people were not supporting the Quit India movement at all. Such as the Muslim League, the Indian Imperial Police, the British Indian Army, and the merchants who were benefiting from the Second War.
At that time, many young men were in the Azad Hind Fauj, which was founded by Subhash Chand Bose. The youth of Azad Hind Fauj did not participate in Quit India Movement. But at that time, America had openly supported this movement.
The President of the United States was Franklin d. roosevelt, who forced United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill to complete the demands of the Indian people. But the British government refused to give independence to India.
India’s role in Second world war
In 1939, many nationalists of India were angry about why India participated in the second world war.
Because at that time, Governor-General Lord Linlithgow had sent Indian soldiers to another world war without the consent of the Indian people. But the Muslim League supported that India joined the war,
In those days, in a meeting of the Congress Working Committee, it was decided that India will contribute to fighting against fascism, but India should also get freedom.
But Mahatma Gandhi did not support it due to non-violent views. Due to which there was a difference of opinion among the Indian leaders too.
In March 1942, Stafford Cripps started a scheme which is given below.
- Dominion rights were given to India by the British government under the Cripps Mission.
- Indians were allowed to make their own constitution under this mission
- The Cripps Mission was introduced to satisfy the Congress and the Muslim League.
- Mahatma Gandhi wanted a united India, but some Muslim people were demanding a separate country, which is now known as Pakistan.
- The Congress wanted authority over the Indian military because they believed that slaves could never progress.
- According to the Muslim League, Muslims had got minimum rights from the Cripps Mission.
- The Hindu Mahasabha rejected this mission because of the discussion in Pakistan.
Because none of the conditions of transfer in the Cripps mission were clear, therefore it proved to be unsuccessful, apart from this, most political institutions of India rejected it.
Quit India Movement Impact
In 1939, India was brought in the middle of the Germany vs Britain war and at the same time the Congress proposed that India would not join this war until talks with Indian leaders would be held.
Although Mahatma Gandhi was angry with this somewhere, and therefore he said that Indians had asked for bread from the British government but they were given stones instead of bread.
The Satyagraha movement was a part of the Civil Disobedience Movement, and it was also started by the All India Congress Committee under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.
Due to this movement many famous Congress leaders also had to go to jail.
There was a time when the Congress was banned in India. And this was the reason that this movement proved to be an important movement for the Congress.
After this some leaders went to jail, therefore many common citizens of India damaged the properties of the British government. Which included police stations, law courts, and railway stations.
Although some Muslims supported the British government in this movement.
Opposition to Quit India Movement
The Quit India movement was opposed by the political institutions of India. And the names of these institutions are the Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, Communist Party of India, and Princely State.
Muslim League: The Muslim League believed that if India becomes independent from Britishers, then Hindus will try to rule over Muslims, and by doing so Hindus can put pressure on Muslims. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did not accept any idea of Mahatma Gandhi, due to which many Muslims supported the British government.
Hindu Mahasabha: Quit India movement was also opposed by Hindu nationalists. The members of the Hindu Mahasabha had trouble with the partition of India because they wanted a united India. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and Shyamaprasad Mukherjee was the leader of Hindu Mahasabha and refused to listen to Mahatma Gandhi and left Mahatma Gandhi.
Communist Party of India: At that time the Communist Party was banned, and the people of this party wanted to remove their ban, due to which they helped the British Government in the Soviet Union vs Germany war, due to which the British Government also removed the Communist Party Ban.
Princely states: Many Indian princely states did not support this movement. Rather it helped the British government.
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh: Rashtriya Swayamsevak was also against the Quit India movement. At that time the Sangh never contributed to the fight for India’s Independence.
Nationalist people did not get any facility at the international level. But America had supported India in India’s fight for independence, but Churchill had threatened America, due to which America had to remain calm.
At that time, the British government was battling the Japanese army on the Indo-Burma border. Therefore the British government sent many Congress leaders to jail with Gandhi. Due to which Youth Congress leader Aruna Asaf Ali chaired the AICC session and hoisted the Indian flag on 9 August. But the Congress party was banned for doing so.
Seeing so much suffering on the Congress leaders, a feeling of sympathy was raised in the hearts of many ordinary citizens, while no big leader was opposing the Britishers. However, the common people took to the streets and they opposed the British government. And this protest became a bit violent.
End of Quit India Movement
In 1944, there was peace in India again because the influence of the leadership of the Congress had also reduced. However, this movement was not supported by most of the political organizations of India, due to which it proved unsuccessful, and there was a time when the Congress and Mahatma Gandhi had to face many criticisms.