Muhammad Ghori | History | Expedition | Achievements | Legacy
Muhammad of Ghor history
His childhood name was Shahabuddin also used to known as Mu’izz ad-Din and Ghor is a place in Afghanistan, Therefore he is also known as Muhammed of Ghor or Muhammed Ghori
In history he is known as one of the greatest ruler of the Ghurid dynasty he was the first Muslim ruler who laid the foundation for the Islamist empire in the Indian subcontinent, he ruled many parts of the world which are known in modern days as Pakistan, North India, Iran, Bangladesh, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan, therefore, he was a well-knowing ruler in Central Asia.
There is no exact date of his birth month but it’s said that he was born in 1149 AD in the Ghor reign of Afghanistan, At that time Afghanistan was such an important center.
His father’s name was (Baha al-Din Sam I) and he was a local ruler of ghor reign.
he had an elder brother whose name was (Ghiyath al-din Muhammad) they were practicing Muslims.
Muhammad Ghori war Expedition
His uncle fakhar al-din Masud revolted against the ghor empire allied with Taj al-Din Yildiz and Seljuk governor of Herat and Balkh to claim the throne of Ghor reign but fortunately, Muhammad Ghori and his elder brother Ghiyath al-din Muhammad suppressed them magnificently.
Both brothers defeated them in Ragh I Zar by killing the Seljuk governor of Herat during the battle and occupied Zamindawar, Urozgan, Badghis, and Gharjistan.
The year 1173, This year was a turning point for the Muhammed brothers because they took control over Afghanistan and invaded the Ghazni dynasty, and defeated the Oghuz Turk, Oghuz had captured the city of Ghaznavids, Ghiyath al-din Muhammad was appointed the leader of Ghazni.
In the year 1175, the Muhammed brothers conquered a place called Herat from a Seljuk governor named Baha al-din toghril and managed to conquer Pushang, the ruler of Sistan.
Muhammad Ghori Invision to India
After conquering Afghanistan he thought that now we should attack India then we shall capture India’s wealth but gradually he started to think that I can establish an empire in India.
One of the most important reasons to attack India was that because Khwarezmian empire was rising which was a Great and powerful Persian empire, and he knew that if he doesn’t do something so Khwarezmian empire will ruin the Ghurid empire.
In the year 1175, he come to India from the khyber pass and started to attack the Punjab region, Multan.
In the year 1176, he took control over Uch in Upper Sindh.
In the year 1178, he tried to attack Gujarat but Muhammad hewas defeated by Mularaja II of Chaulukya (Solanki) in the battle of Kayadara, Muhammad he took lessons from the defeat.
He was not a sufficient commander but his choice was wonderful he knew very well which commander and officers he should choose for any expedition, Overall he was a good strategy maker.
First battle of Tarain (1191)
He made a complete strategy to attack tarain but before attacking he tried to turn Prithviraj Chauhan to through diplomacy but he was unsuccessful.
Then the first battle of tarain begin in 1191 in which Mohammad Gauri was defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan because Prithviraj Chauhan had a very large Army as compare to Ghori.
In that battle, Prithviraj Chauhan’s brother Govind Raj played a really good role he was about to kill him but Prithviraj Chauhan didn’t let him kill.
He was a clever person he went back to his place and started to make another strategy again for the second Battle of tarain and he learned a lot from his all past mistake that he made in the first battle.
After that, he sent a letter to Prithviraj Chauhan by saying that ‘it is good for you if you surrender’ Prithviraj Chauhan couldn’t believe it.
Second Battle of Tarain (1192)
Prithviraj Chauhan had a large Army and there was 3000 Elephants, 300000 cavalries, and infantry.
He had 120000 fully trained man.
Prithviraj Chauhan knew that Ghori’s Army cannot face his army.
Strategy – In the first battle of tarain ghori attacked from the front site of Prithviraj Chauhan’s Army and he was defeated by him.
For the second Battle of tarain He made a strategy he divided his Army into five divisions he said that we will attack from all four sides and the fifth division will be reserved.
Then he started to attacking Prithviraj Chauhan’s army from all side but again Prithviraj Chauhan Army was dominating his army.
Ghor commanded his Army to run away so Prithviraj Chauhan thought that they are scared of him and they are running away from him but it was a strategy.
Seeing Ghor’s army running away, Prithviraj Chauhan commanded his army, chase it, and when his Army was chasing, Ghor commanded his fifth division to attack.
His 5th division severely damaged Prithviraj Chauhan, due to which Prithviraj Chauhan had to face defeat.
Battle of chandawar
In the year 1193 or 1194, He attacked Jaichand of Kannauj in Chandawar reign which now located near Ferozabad.
In that battle, He defeated Jaichand, after defeating him Muhammed of ghor took control of the Agra and other parts of Northern India.
After this Delhi Sultanate come into existence which ruled for next 600 years Qutubuddin aibak was his one of most important slave and become the first ruler of Delhi Sultanate and laid the foundation of Slave Dynasty.
Muhammad Ghori Achievements
- He had conquered Indus and Multan both.
- He had conquered Lahore and Punjab.
- Most importantly he had defeated Prithviraj Chauhan in the second Battle of tarain in 1192.
- He was successful to lay the foundation of the Islamic empire in India.
- He won the battle of chinaware by defeating Jaichand of kannauj.
Legacy of Muhammad Ghori
He was not tolerant like Mahmud ghazni
After winning the second Battle of tarain Muhammad of Ghor returned the kingdom of Prithviraj Chauhan to the relatives of Prithviraj Chauhan and said that from today you’ll work under my control
After winning the second Battle of tarain if he wanted so he could have killed all the Rajputs but he did not do anything like that, Because he knew that diplomacy is a very good thing and he had to live in India too
Muhammad Ghori death
In the year 1206 on 15 march when he was going back to his Afghanistan’s Ghazni reign, his caravan rested near the Jhelum river, and he was killed but who killed him is still a mystery.
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