Khilji dynasty | History | Rulers | UPSC

Khiljii Dynasty

 

Khilji dynasty history

The Khilji dynasty ruled only for 30 years from 1290 to 1320, And there were 5 rulers in this dynasty, however, in this short period a well knowing and most important ruler Alauddin Khilji ascended the throne, Later he did many good and bad things for his people.

 

Khilji dynasty rulers

  1. Jalaluddin firuz khalji
  2. Alauddin khilji
  3. Shihabuddin Omar
  4. Qutbuddin Mubarak shah
  5. Nasiruddin khusro

 

Jalaluddin firuz Khilji

Jalauddin firoz khilji was the founder of the Khilji dynasty, and he founded it in 1290 Ad at the age of 70, therefore he is considered to be the oldest ruler in the history of the Delhi sultanate, In his final days he wanted to live peacefully, however, he got his coronation done in the fort of Kilokhari, and that was situated Delhi.

Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji had a nephew named Alauddin Khilji, and his father Shihabuddin Masud khilji died at an early age so that Alauddin was brought up by his uncle Jalaluddin Firoz, Alauddin was eldest son of Shihabuddin Masud khilji.

In 1296 Jalaluddin Khilji sent Alauddin Khilji for the expedition to South India because the region of North India was already been expanded, Alauddin Khilji was the first ruler who tried to extend the boundaries of his empire to Southern India.

Alauddin Khilji expedited in the Devagiri region where the Yadavas dynasty was ruling by defeating Ramachandra And received immense wealth from there, out of which he hid some wealth without telling his uncle Jalaluddin Firoz, after that when he has returned from the expedition he thinks that I am worthy to be king, not my old uncle so he killed his uncle.

 

Alauddin Khilji

Principle of kingship

All the sultan before Alauddin khilji used to take the approval from the Caliphate to rule according to Islamic tradition, but Alauddin khilji was the first king to separate the religion and the politics, consequently, He never worked according to Islamic tradition, besides, He did not take the approval from the Caliphate to be a sultan.

He established an autocratic rule during his reign, In his ruling days, he took care of his reign more than his people.

 

Attempted to stop the rebellion

His uncle who brought up him since childhood with love and care although he was the father-in-law of Alauddin khilji, but Alauddin had killed him, so therefore many of his close people and family members were upset so in response, they did rebellion against Alauddin Khilji, there were 4 rebellions took place in his time, but luckily he suppressed all these 4 rebellions by the help of his army, And to prevent further rebellion he made 4 laws.

 

He established an intelligence department

He knew that rebels could make strategies against him, So if his people roam in disguise from place to place then he could know about those who are trying to rebel against him so that he could end rebellion easily, Due to this law, no further revolt happened.

 

Forbidden Alcohol, cannabis, and gambling

He believed that when rich people gathered so they use alcohol, cannabis, and do gambling while doing that they make strategies against the king, so to stop the rich people from gathering banned these things completely in his reign.

 

Banned wealthy people’s marriage

Wealthy people used to invite too many people to their feast and used to do meetings, due to this Alauddin Khilji thought that they could make strategies to remove him from the throne, so he banned rich people’s marriage to secure his throne.

 

Imposed tax on Hindus

He believed that Hindu can also do rebel against him, therefore he took all the land from them and so that they could not stand against their king.

 

Changes in revenue and tax system

Khilji needed money to strengthen his army to stopped the Mongol invaders, therefore he increased the tax on farmers and wealthy people, initially, they had to pay one-third of their income but khilji increased it to 50% of their total income, And these two taxes were Charai and Ghari.

Charai – Whoever used to graze his animals in the government’s fields the tax was collected from them.
Ghari – The government’s places where people used to build their houses were taxed for living in those houses.

He measured all the land around Delhi to imposed tax on it so that he could get a decent amount of tax.

He created a new department to collect revenue named Diwan-i-Mustakhraj and appointed to Mustakhraj, he was an officer and whose job was to collect revenue, However, The result of this revenue system was that a lot of wealth started accumulating, and from this wealth, he not only pushed the Mongol back but also established a strong empire.

 

Alauddin khilji Military reform

Permanent Army

All the kings before Alauddin khilji used their army in war and they did not have a permanent army, Khilji realized that he must have a permanent army to secure his empire, therefore he built a strong permanent army.

 

Cash in salary

Alauddin stopped old tradition because earlier kings used to provide land to soldiers instead of cashing in salary, Alauddin started giving monthly salary to soldiers, therefore, he was successful to build a strong and happy army.

 

Soldiers Identification

As in the modern world Photographs of soldiers are taken for identification purposes, Alauddin also started the practice of detecting Soldiers for the first time in India.

 

Horses identification

Horses that were included in the army, he started marking those horse, hence, the number of horses and breed could be better identified.

The tradition that he started to identifying soldiers and horses was his good decision, He was succeeded to build a strong army, besides, all soldiers were divided on division.

 

Alauddin khilji market policy

The most important act that Alauddin implemented in his empire is marketing policy, Alauddin built a specific market for his army, And from that market, soldiers could buy anything at a reasonable price, therefore soldiers never demand to increase their salary, this market was built only for soldiers but the local public also used it.

During the 20 years of Alauddin’s reign, there was no increment in prices in the market, He Never allowed any price to increase, also he made some rules he stopped Black money.

 

Price control system

He prevented dishonesty in measurement

Before Sultan Khilji people were fond of dishonesty in measurement to increase their salary, therefore to prevent it, Alauddin appointed officials in the market to pay attention to weights measurement, if anything was weighed less by the shopkeeper so in return, an equal amount of body mass was cut from shopkeeper,s body, Due to this harshness, honesty was increased in people.

Alauddin built different markets for different stuff, Originally he implemented five types of markets in Delhi, But in surrounding areas of Delhi he was failed to expand it.

  1. Food market
  2. Manufactured market
  3. Daily market
  4. The market for daily commodities
  5. The market for animals and slaves

Two Objective of Alauddin khilji

Sikandar-i-sani 

He was concerning himself another alexander, therefore, he assumed the title of Sikandar-i-sani which means second Alexander.

 

Establishment of a new religion

He tried to create a new religion instead of Islam but he was failed to create it because nobody followed it.

 

Alauddin khilji Empire expansion

Being a supreme ruler he attacked and he undertook many expeditions in the areas of Gujarat, Ranthambore, Bengal, chittod, Malwa, and a few more part of southern India, besides he won mostly expedition, hence, he successfully established a strong empire.

 

Malik Kafur

Alauddin went to Gujrat for an expedition, so he purchased Malik kafur from there in 1000 dinars, Malik kafur was a eunuch but he helped Alauddin Khilji to win the southern part of India.

 

Zafar Khan

Zafar khan was the most loved general of Alauddin Khilji and he was killed in a battle with the Mongols.

 

Queen Padmavati

The information about Padmavati comes from a book named Padmavat, and it was written in 1540 by Malik Muhammad Jayasi, he has described in this book that how Alauddin Khilji attacked in Chittor region and tried to get queen Padmavati.

Alauddin was failed because Rani Padmavati committed (Jauhar) suicide.

 

Expedition in southern India

The expedition of South India was really important, Alauddin Khilji went there for the first time in 1296, But after becoming a king, he had sent his general Malik Kafur to the expedition of South India in 1307.

In 1307 malik kafur attacked the Yadavas dynasty, and defeated a Yadav king named Ramchandra, and got wealth from there.

 

Mongol

At the time of Alauddin Khilji, Mongol invaders attacked India 6 times but they were failed, However, Alauddin Khilji was successful every time to save India

 

Shihabuddin Omar

After Alauddin Khilji Omar become the ruler a few time but not for long a long time

 

Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah

Mubarak Shah ascended to the throne in 1316 and ruled till 1320, However Mubarak shah could not able to handle the Khilji dynasty, besides Mubarak shah was mentally disturbed, he used to walk around in the palace without clothes, and sometimes he used to wear women’s clothes.

 

Naseeruddin khusrau shah

After the murder of Mubarak Shah, Naseeruddin khusrau Khan assumed the title of the shah in 1320 for few months, He was a Hindu by birth but later he converted to Islam.

Supreme Muslim did not let him rule, consequently they removed him from the throne and established the tughlaq dynasty.

 

Khilji dynasty Architecture

  1. Alai Darwaza
  2. Jamiat khana mosque
  3. Siri Fort
  4. Place of thousand pillars

 

Khilji dynasty map

Khilji dynasty map

Khilji dynasty UPSC

There are the most important questions with answers for UPSC from the Khilji dynasty.

Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji killed Shamsuddin Kayumars, the last ruler of the Slave dynasty, and laid the foundation of the Khilji dynasty in 1290.

In Devagiri Alauddin Khilji launched the first military expedition for southern India.

Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate who had a liberal attitude towards the Hindu people.

Sidi Maula was crushed under the elephant’s feet during Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji.

During the reign of Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji, 2000 Mongols accepted Islam and settled in Mughalpur near Delhi.

Alauddin Khilji gets his coronation done In the Lal Mahal of Balban in Delhi.

The victory of Chittor was the best victory of Alauddin khilji and later he was renamed Khizrabad.

Pandya, the state in Southern India neither accepted him nor surrendered to Alauddin Khilji.

Alauddin Khilji assumed the title of Alexander II and got it inscribed on his coins.

Amir Khusrow propounded the ruler of the kingship of Alauddin Khilji.

Malik Kafur the commander of Alauddin Khilji is also called Thousand Dinari.

After becoming Sultan Allauddin Khilji’s first military expedition was the Gujarat invasion in 1299.

Zafar Khan was the commander of Allauddin Khilji against the Mongol invaders.

Jalaluddin Khilji established the department called (diwan I wakuf).

 

Khilji dynasty notes

Market Regulation System was introduced by Alauddin Khilji and he also established the permanent army, although mostly attack by Mongols done at Alauddin’s time.

Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji was the first ruler of the Khilji Empire, he established the Khilji empire by ending the rule of the slave dynasty

Alauddin Khilji also assumed the title of caliphate

A book called Tarikh I Firoz shahi is written by Ziauddin Barni

Alai Darwaza and palace of a thousand pillars is built by Alauddin Khilji, also started the practice of marking horses and identifying soldiers.

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