Iltutmish belonged to the Iltburi tribe from Turkistan. His full name was Shamsuddin Iltutmish. His father’s name was Ilam Khan, and he was a chief of the Turkish clan.
He was a slave of Qutbuddin Aibak. He was bought from Jamaluddin, the Governor of Badaun, for the military services of Aibak.
Qutubuddin aibak had a daughter named Shahturkin; she got married to Iltutmish. It is believed that Iltutmish was tall and handsome and an incredible commander.
After the marriage, Qutubuddin aibak gave various responsibilities to him, such as Qutubuddin Aibak appointed him as the governor of Badaun in 1206 AD.
Title of Sultan
He was the first Sultan of India. He got the title of Sultan from the Muslim caliphate and ascended the throne of the sultanate in 1211.
Al-Mustansir Bi’llah, the caliphate of Baghdad, permitted him to be a Sultan. Immediately after getting the permission, he held the title of Sultan, And the Imams had also recited khutbah in the mosque for his long life.
Iltutmish expedition and war
- From 1215 to 1216 AD, he fought the Battle of Tarain, defeated Tajuddin Yalduz, and killed him. Yalduz was a great enemy of Iltutmish.
- In 1217 AD – He put Nasruddin Khwaja to death.
- In 1225 AD, he defeated Husamuddin Nawaz and conquered Bengal and Bihar also; in the same year, he dominated the Northen board.
- In 1227 AD – He conquered he defeated the fort of Mandore, a large part of Rajasthan.
- In 1229 AD – He had conquered Jalore
- In 1231 AD – He had conquered Gwalior’s
- From 1234 to 1235 AD – He had conquered Malwa, Ujjain, and Bhilsa, along he had won a large area of Madhya Pradesh.
- Tanka – It was the first coin made of silver and pure Arabic was written on it.
- Jital – It was the second coin made of copper.
Iltutmish was the first Muslim Sultan in India who introduced coins from his name. His name, the name of Caliphate Al-Mustansir Bi’llah, was also written on it. Although Muhammad Ghori also introduced it coins but his coins used to make in Afghanistan.
And on these coins, Nandi bull and goddess Lakshmi’s image was printed. Its purpose was that there were primarily Hindu in India. He printed pictures of deities to get support and earn their trust.
40 Turkish Nobleman
Iltutmish made a team of 40 Turkish officers. He included those Turkish people who had sent an invitation to him to become the Sultan.
Unfortunately, This group was further abolished by Ghiyasuddin Balban because Balban was one of them. According to historians, he did that to rule the Slave Dynasty perfectly because they created a disturbance in Razia Sultan‘s work.
- He introduced a unity system; It was the part of the land given to soldiers alive of their cash salary; he wanted Afghan and Turk soldiers to live in India.
- To stop them in India from going back to their country, he started giving them tax-free land to live in India and join the army.
Iltutmish was a man of justice. Therefore, he builds two Ox statues at the door of his palace, the ring bell was tied around the neck of those Ox, so any person could ask for justice by ringing the bell.
By wearing red clothes, anyone could demand justice in the court.
Iltutmish enacted four laws
Jizya tax – This tax was imposed on non-Muslim. Still, it was not taken from children, women, devotees, Brahmins, and such people who could not pay the Jizya tax.
The Jizya was protection money from non-Muslim, and it wasn’t imposed on Muslims because Muslims needed to join the army. Still, it wasn’t required for non-Muslim to join the military because they were paying the tax.
Zakat – This was the second tax. It was specially imposed on Muslims. They had to give two and a half percent of their total income, and this tax was collected to help the needy and the orphan people.
Khiraj – This third tax was used to collect from those who used to cultivate farming. This tax was often taken from those who used to use canals or rivers built by the sultan.
Khams tax – when the army used to go in battles and loot some wealth from there, then one and a half were given to sultans, and the rest of the treasure troopers used to divide among themselves.
The first Mongol attack on the Indian border during the Iltutmish reign was happened in 1221 by Genghis Khan. he attacked Sindh. Genghis Khan was not attacking India, but he was attacking Khwarizm shah, who was in Sindh. Still, Genghis could not kill him because Khwarizm field to Arab.
Khwarizm shah’s son Jalaluddin mangwani took refuge in Iltutmish’s kingdom, so because of that. Genghis khan sent a letter to Iltutmish and said. “Send back Jalaluddin mangwani from your kingdom” therefore, Iltutmish followed it and removed Jalaluddin mangwani from his kingdom.
Because Iltutmish had followed Genghis Khan’s order by removing Jalaluddin mangwani, That’s the reason Genghis Khan had gone back from the Sindh border.
If Iltutmish had refused to accept Genghis Khan’s order, then Genghis Khan would have been ruined India.
Monuments built by Iltutmish
- Qutub Minar
- Sultan Garhi tomb
- Sultan Garhi tomb
- Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti dargah
Sultan Garhi tomb – It is in Delhi and was built by Iltutmish in 1229 AD. This tomb belongs to Nasiruddin Mahmud, eldest son of Iltutmish. Also, it was the first tomb built by a Muslim ruler.
Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti dargah – This is a tomb of Khwaja Moinuddin witch is situated in Ajmer city of Rajasthan, Moinuddin Chishti was an Indian Islamic preacher.
Madrasa-e-muizji – This was an Islamic school and situated in Delhi. It was built in remembrance of Muhammad Ghori.
Qutub Minar – Qutubuddin aibak laid its foundation. Still, he could not build it entirely because he died when Qutub Minar was being constructed, so Iltutmish completed the construction of Qutub Minar.
He created a team of 40 Turkish people known as Amir-i-Chihalgani. There were already 40 Turkish people, which was made by Qutubuddin aibak and Muhammad Ghori. But Iltutmish was doubtful with them. That’s the reason he created his new group.
Iltutmish was the first Muslim ruler who introduced gold and silver coin, which used to known as Tanka and Jital.
Qutubuddin Aibak started Qutub Minar construction, but Iltutmish completed its construction.
After the death of Qutubuddin aibak, the ruler of Bengal Ali Mardan had declared independence. Still, later Bihar and Bengal both were merged in Delhi Sultanate by Iltutmish.
He had created different departments for revenue and finance.
He received investiture from the Caliphate of Baghdad.
He conquered Punjab and Lahore by defeating Yaldoz; He also defeated Qabacha.
He saved India from the Mongols because, in 1221, Genghis khan was roaming around India’s Sindh border in search of Jalaluddin mangwani, who had taken refuge in Iltutmish’s kingdom. If he had not removed Jalaluddin mangwani from his kingdom, then Genghis Khan would have been destroyed India so severely.
He got the title of Sultan from Baghdad’s caliphate in 1229 AD.
He died on 1st may in 1236, but before his death, He had chosen his successor to his daughter Razia Sultan.
After his death, 40 Turkish Nobleman was not following his commandment. They did not allow Razia to sat on the throne. They let his son Ruknuddin Firoz.
Later Razia came into power with the general public’s support, and she ordered to arrest of her widow mother Turkan Khatun and her brother Ruknuddin Firoz. In this way, Razia became the first female ruler of India.
His tomb is situated in New Delhi at the Qutub Minar complex, and this tomb was built by Iltutmish in 1235 AD.
Historians believe that his tomb was broken, but later it was repaired by Feroz Shah Tughlaq.
There is no roof on his tomb.
- He reign lasted from 1210 to 1236 AD
- He was the first Sultan who got the title of Sultan from the Caliphate
- He was the main founder of the Slave Dynasty but its foundation was laid by Qutubuddin aibak
- He transferred his capital from Lahore to Delhi
- He is also called the father of Tomb
- He was the successor of Qutubuddin aibak
- He was the first Sultan of Delhi sultanate who took the control over Bengal