Iltutmish | History | Expansion | Achievements | UPSC

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Iltutmish

Iltutmish History

Iltutmish belonged to the Iltburi tribe from Turkistan. His full name was Shamsuddin Iltutmish. His father’s name was Ilam Khan and he was a chief of the Turkish clan.

He was a slave of Qutbuddin Aibak. He was bought from Jamaluddin the Governor of Badaun for the military services of Aibak.

Qutubuddin aibak had a daughter named Shahturkin, she got married to Iltutmish, It is believed that Iltutmish was tall and handsome and an incredible commander.

After the marriage, Qutubuddin aibak gave various responsibilities to him such as Qutubuddin Aibak appointed him as the governor of Badaun in 1206 AD.

 

Title of Sultan

He was the first Sultan of India because he got the title of Sultan from the caliphate then he ascended the throne of Delhi sultanate in 1211.

Al-Mustansir Bi’llah, the caliphate of Baghdad permitted him to be a Sultan then Immediately after getting the permission he held the title of Sultan, And the Imams had also recited khutbah in the mosque for his long life.

 

Iltutmish expedition and war

From 1215 to 1216 AD – He fought the Battle of Tarain in that battle he defeated Tajuddin Yalduz and killed him, Yalduz was a great enemy of Iltutmish.

In 1217 AD  He put Nasruddin Khwaja to death.

In 1225 AD – He defeated Husamuddin Nawaz and conquered Bengal and Bihar also in the same year conquered the Northen board

In 1227 AD – He conquered the fort of Mandore, a large part of Rajasthan was conquered by him.

In 1229 AD  He had conquered Jalore

In 1231 AD – He had conquered Gwalior’s

From 1234 to 1235 AD – He had conquered Malwa, Ujjain, and Bhilsa, along with he had won a large area of ​​Madhya Pradesh.

Tanka and Jital

Iltutmish Coin

  1. Tanka – It was the first coin made of silver and pure Arabic was written on it.
  2. Jital – It was the second coin made of copper.

Iltutmish was the first Muslim Sultan in India who introduced coins from his name, along with his name the name of Caliphate Al-Mustansir Bi’llah was also written on it, Although Muhammad Ghori also introduced coins but his coins used to make in Afghanistan.

And on these coins goddess Lakshmi’s image was printed, and along with this the picture of Nandi bull was also printed, Its purpose was that there were mostly Hindu in India, He printed pictures of deities to get support and earn their trust.

40 Turkish Nobleman

Iltutmish made a group of 40 Turkish officers and he included those Turkish people who had sent an invitation to him, to become the Sultan.

Unfortunately, This group was further abolished by Ghiyasuddin Balban because Balban was one of them, and according to historians, he did that to rule the Slave Dynasty perfectly because they used to create disturbance in Razia Sultan‘s work.

Unity System

  • He introduced a unity system, It was the part of the land given to soldiers in alive of their cash salary, He wanted that Afghan and Turk soldiers should live in India.
  • To stop them in India from going back to their country he started to giving them tax-free land so that they could live in India and could join the army.

Justice system 

Iltutmish was a man of justice. Therefore, There used to be two Ox at the door of his palace, and the ring bell was tied around the neck of those Ox, so any person could ask for justice by ringing the bell.

By wearing red clothes anyone could demand justice in the court.

Iltutmish enacted four laws

For the first time in Delhi Sultanate, four laws were taken from the Sharia law.

Jizya tax – This tax was imposed on non-Muslim, But it was not taken from children, women, devotees, Brahmins, and such people who were not able to pay the Jizya tax.

The Jizya was protection money from non-Muslim, and it wasn’t imposed on Muslims because Muslims needed to join the army, but it wasn’t required for non-Muslim to join the army because they were paying the tax.

Zakat – This was the second tax and it was specially imposed on Muslims, they had to give two and a half percent of their total income, and this tax was collected to help the destitute and the orphan people.

Khiraj – This third tax used to collect from those people who used to cultivate farming, and this tax was often taken from those people who used to use canals or rivers which were built by the sultan.

Khams tax – when the army used to go in battles and used to loot some wealth from there, then one and a half-used to given to sultans and the rest of the treasure troopers used to divide among themselves.

 

Mongol attack in India

Mongol invaders

The first Mongol attack on the Indian border during the Iltutmish reign was happened in 1221 by Genghis Khan. he attacked Sindh, Actually Genghis Khan was not attacking India, but he was attacking Khwarizm shah who was in Sindh, but Genghis could not kill him because Khwarizm field to Arab.

Khwarizm shah’s son Jalaluddin mangwani took refuge in Iltutmish’s kingdom, so because of that Genghis khan sent a letter to Iltutmish and said “Send back Jalaluddin mangwani from your kingdom” therefore Iltutmish followed it and removed Jalaluddin mangwani from his kingdom.

Because Iltutmish had followed Genghis Khan’s order by removing Jalaluddin mangwani, That’s the reason Genghis Khan had gone back from the Sindh border. 

If Iltutmish had refused to accept Genghis Khan’s order then Genghis Khan would have been ruined India.

 

Monuments built by Iltutmish

  • Qutub Minar
  • Sultan Garhi tomb
  • Sultan Garhi tomb
  • Madrasa-e-muizji
  • Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti dargah

Sultan Garhi tomb – It is in Delhi and was built by Iltutmish in 1229 AD, This tomb belongs to Nasiruddin Mahmud eldest son of Iltutmish also it was the first tomb built by a Muslim ruler.

Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti dargah – This is a tomb of Khwaja Moinuddin witch is situated in Ajmer city of Rajasthan, Moinuddin Chishti was an Indian Islamic preacher.

Madrasa-e-muizji – This was an Islamic school and situated in Delhi, It was built in remembrance of Muhammad Ghori.

Qutub Minar – Its foundation was laid by Qutubuddin aibak but he could not build it completely because he died when Qutub Minar was being built, so Iltutmish completed the construction of Qutub Minar.

 

Iltutmish Achievements

He created a group of 40 Turkish people which used to be known as Amir-i-Chihalgani, Although there was already a group of 40 Turkish people, which was made by Qutubuddin aibak and Muhammad Ghori. But Iltutmish was doubtful with them, that’s the reason he created his new group.

Iltutmish was the first Muslim ruler who introduced gold and silver coin which used to known as Tanka and Jital.

Qutub Minar construction was started by Qutubuddin Aibak but its construction was completed by Iltutmish.

After the death of Qutubuddin aibak, the ruler of Bengal Ali Mardan had declared independence but later Bihar and Bengal both were merged in Delhi Sultanate by Iltutmish.

He had created different department for revenue and finance.

He received investiture from the Caliphate of Baghdad.

He conquered Punjab and Lahore by defeating Yaldoz, He also defeated Qabacha.

He saved India from the Mongols because in 1221 Genghis khan was roaming around India’s Sindh border in the search of Jalaluddin mangwani who had taken refuge in Iltutmish’s kingdom, If he had not removed Jalaluddin mangwani from his kingdom then Genghis Khan would have been destroyed India so badly.

He got the title of Sultan from Baghdad’s caliphate in 1229 AD.

 

Iltutmish Death

He died on 1 may in 1236, but before his death, He had chosen his successor to his daughter Razia Sultan

After his death 40 Turkish Nobleman was not following his commandment, they didn’t allow Razia to sat on the throne they allowed his son Ruknuddin Firoz.

Later Razia came into power with the support of the general public, and she ordered to arrest of her widow mother Turkan Khatun and her brother Ruknuddin Firoz, In this way, Razia became the first female ruler of India

 

Iltutmish Tomb

His tomb is situated in new Delhi at the Qutub Minar complex and this tomb was built by Iltutmish himself in 1235 AD.

Historian believe that his tomb was broken but later it was repaired by Feroz Shah Tughlaq.

There is no roof on his tomb.

 

Iltutmish UPSC

  • He reign lasted from 1210 to 1236 AD
  • He was the first Sultan who got the title of Sultan from the Caliphate
  • He was the main founder of the Slave Dynasty but its foundation was laid by Qutubuddin aibak
  • He transferred his capital from Lahore to Delhi
  • He is also called the father of Tomb
  • He was the successor of Qutubuddin aibak
  • He was the first Sultan of Delhi sultanate who took the control over Bengal

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