His full name was Shamsuddin Iltutmish, He belonged to the Iltburi tribe from Turkistan.
His father’s name was Ilam Khan and he was a chief of the Turkish clan.
He was a slave of Qutbuddin Aibak. He was bought from Jamaluddin the Governor of Badaun for military services of Aibak.
Qutubuddin aibak had a daughter whose name was Shahturkin she got married to Aibak’s slave Iltutmish, Its said that Iltutmish was tall and handsome and an incredible commander.
After the marriage, Qutubuddin aibak also gave many responsibilities to him such as Qutubuddin Aibak appointed him as the governor of Badaun in 1206 AC.
Title of Sultan
He was the first Sultan of India because he got the title of Sultan from the caliphate then he ascended the throne of Delhi sultanate in 1211.
Al-Mustansir Bi’llah, the caliphate of Baghdad permitted him to be a Sultan then Immediately after getting the permission he held the title of Sultan, And Khutbah started to recite in mosques from his for long life.
Caliphate of Baghdad sent investiture to him.
Iltutmish expedition and war
- In 1215 to 1216 AD – He fought the Battle of Tarain in that battle he defeated Tajuddin Yalduz and killed him, Yalduz was a great enemy of Iltutmish.
- From 1217 AD – He drive Nasruddin Khwaja to death.
- In 1225 AD – He defeated Husamuddin Awaaz and conquered Bengal and Bihar also in the same year also conquered the Northen board
- In 1227 AD – He conquered the fort of Mandore, a large part of Rajasthan was conquered by him.
- In 1229 AD – He had conquered Jalore
- In 1231 AD – He had conquered Gwalior’s
- In 1234 to 1235 AD – He had conquered Malwa and Ujjain Bhilsa, along with it had won a large area of Madhya Pradesh
- Tanka – It was the first coin made of silver and pure Arabic was written on it.
- Jital – It was the second coin made of copper
For the first time, Muslim Sultan in India introduced coins from his name, Muhammad Ghori also introduced coins but his coins used to make in Afghanistan
Iltutmish was the first Muslim sultan who introduced coins made in India from his name along with his name the name of Caliphate Al-Mustansir Bi’llah was also written on it
And on these coins goddess Lakshmi’s image was also printed along with this the picture of Nandi bull was printed, Its purpose was that there were mostly Hindus in India, He printed pictures of deities to get support and earn their trust.
40 Turkish officers
He made a group of 40 Turkish officers and they were the same Turkish people who sent the invitation to him from Badaun to become the Sultan.
Unfortunately, This group was further abolished by Ghiyasuddin Balban because he was one of them according to few historians he did that to rule Slave Dynasty perfectly because they used to middling in Razia Sultan‘s work.
- He introduced a unity system It was the part of the land given to soldiers in alive of their cash salary, He wanted that Afghan and Turk soldiers should live in India.
- To stop them in India from going back to their country he started to giving them tax-free land so that they can live in India and they can join the army.
He was a man of justice. for justice, There used to be two Ox at the door of his palace, Bell was tied around the neck of those Ox so any person could ask for justice by ringing them.
By wearing red clothes anyone could demand justice in the court.
Iltutmish enacted four laws
For the first time in Delhi Sultanate, four laws were taken from the Sharia law
Jizya tax – this tax was imposed on non Muslim But It was not taken from children, women, devotees, Brahmins and such people who were not able to pay that tax and the Jizya was protection money from non-Muslim and it wasn’t imposed on Muslim because Muslim had to join the army it was compulsory for them but it wasn’t compulsory for non-Muslim to join the army because they were paying the tax
Zakat – The second tax was zakat and it was specially imposed on Muslims they had to give two and a half percent of their total income and this tax was collected to help the destitute and the orphan people
Khams tax – when the army used to go in battles and used to loot some wealth from there then one and a half used to given to sultans and the rest of the treasure troopers used to divide among themselves
The first Mongol attack on the Indian border during the Iltutmish reign was happened in 1221 by Genghis Khan he attacked Sindh, He was not attacking India but he was attacking Khwarizm shah who was in Sindh, but Genghis could not kill him because Khwarizm field to Arab
Khwarizm shah’s son Jalaluddin mangwani took refuge in Iltutmish’s kingdom because of that Genghis khan sent a letter to Iltutmish and said “Remove Jalaluddin mangwani from your kingdom” Iltutmish followed it and removed Jalaluddin mangwani from his kingdom
Because Iltutmish had followed Genghis Khan’s order by removing Jalaluddin mangwani That’s the reason Genghis Khan had gone back from the Sindh border
If Iltutmish refused to accept Genghis Khan’s order then Genghis Khan would have destroyed Iltutmish’s and other Kingdom In Indian
Monuments built by Iltutmish
Sultan Garhi tomb – It is in Delhi and it was built by Iltutmish in 1229 AD, This tomb belongs to Nasiruddin Mahmud eldest son of Iltutmish also it was the first tomb built by a Muslim ruler
Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti dargah – This tomb of Khwaja Moinuddin witch is situated in Ajmer city of Rajasthan, Moinuddin chishti was an Indian Islamic preacher
Madrasa-e-muizji – This is situated in Delhi and It’s special because it was built in remembrance of Muhammad Ghori
Qutub Minar – Its foundation was laid by Qutubuddin aibak but he could not complete it because he died so Iltutmish completed the construction of Qutub Minar
He created a group of 40 Turkish people which used to known as Turkan-i-Chihalgani there was already a group of 40 Turkish people’s group which was made by Qutubuddin aibak and Muhammad Ghori but Iltutmish was doubtful with them, that’s the reason he created his group amongst of his most loyal people
He was the first Muslim ruler who introduced gold and silver coin which used to known as Tanka and Jital
Qutub Minar construction was started by Qutubuddin Aibak but its construction was completed by Iltutmish
After the death of Qutubuddin aibak, the ruler of Bengal Ali Mardan had declared independence but later Bihar and Bengal both were merged in Delhi Sultanate by Iltutmish
He had created different department for revenue and finance
He conquered Punjab and Lahore by defeating Yaldoz, He also defeated Qabacha
He saved India from Mongols because in 1221 Genghis khan was roaming around India’s Sindh border in the search of Jalaluddin mangwani who had taken refuge in Iltutmish’s kingdom,
If he had not removed Jalaluddin mangwani from his kingdom then Genghis Khan could destroye India so badly
He got the title of Sultan from Baghdad’s caliphate in 1229 AD
He died in 1236 but before his death, He had chosen his successor to his daughter Razia Sultana
After his death 40 Turkish officers was not following his commandment, they didn’t allow Razia to sat on the throne they allowed his son Ruknuddin Firoz
Later Razia came into power with the support of the general public and she ordered to arrest of her widow mother Turkan Khatun and her brother Ruknuddin Firoz, In this way, Razia became the first female ruler of India
His tomb is situated in new Delhi at the Qutub Minar complex and this tomb was built by Iltutmish himself in 1235 AD
Historian believe that his tomb was broken but later it was repaired by Feroz Shah Tughlaq
There is no roof on his tomb
- He reign lasted from 1210 to 1236 AD
- He was the first Sultan who got the title of Sultan from the Caliphate
- He was the main founder of the Slave Dynasty but its foundation was laid by Qutubuddin aibak
- He transferred his capital from Lahore to Delhi
- He is also called the father of Tomb
- He was the successor of Qutubuddin aibak
- He was the first Sultan of Delhi sultanate who took the control over Bengal