The nitrogen cycle is a type of biogeochemical process in which the inert nitrogen present in the air becomes very useful for living organisms.
What is nitrogen cycle in biology
It’s a biogeochemical process, In the process, nitrogen takes different forms, for example, nitrogen is sometimes found in the soil and sometimes in the organisms. But after a while, nitrogen gets mixed again in the atmosphere.
In this process, many other processes include such as Denitrification, Putrefaction, Nitrogen faction, etc.
Nitrogen in our atmosphere is available in organic and inorganic forms. Although inorganic nitrogen gas is often found in organisms.
Inorganic nitrogen gas present in the atmosphere is made available by some bacteria to plants. As a result, they convert inactive nitrogen into nitrous.
Nitrogen has to go through many changes to keep the ecosystem balanced.
Types of Nitrogen fixation
- Atmospheric Fixation: It’s a natural phenomenon, in this, lightning converts nitrogen into nitrogen oxides, and this gas is used by Plants.
- Industrial Fixation: In this, humans use ammonia for nitrogen fixation. Initially, ammonia is formed due to the direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen, but later it’s converted into fertilizers such as urea.
- Biological nitrogen fixation: As we have already mentioned that plants or animals could not take nitrogen directly from the air. So in order to use nitrogen, plants or animals need bacteria, which mix the nitrogen present in the air into the soil. and thus nitrogen becomes useful.
How do humans affect the nitrogen cycle
If we talk about the effect on the nitrogen cycle by humans, then in fact humans do many activities, which affect the nitrogen cycle, such as burning fossil fuels or manufacturing fertilizers.
The nitrogen present in the ecosystem has been affected due to the burning of fossil fuels by humans. Some scientists believe that by the year 2030, many such activities by humans will increase, which will have more impact on the nitrogen cycle.
Why nitrogen cycle is important
There are five major reasons why the nitrogen cycle is important, which are as follows:
- Nitrogen compounds help plants synthesize chlorophyll
- Through the Nitrogen cycle, The inert nitrogen gas present in the air is made useful for plants by a biochemical process.
- It works to decompose plant, bacterial, and animal matter by the process of Ammoniation.
- The nitrogen cycle releases nitrates and nitrites into the soil which farmers consider very good for farming.
- Nitrogen is very important for cells, due to this many compounds and biomolecules are formed.
How is the nitrogen cycle important to humans
- The amount of nitrogen in our earth’s atmosphere is more than other gases, which is 78 percent.
- Nitrogen helps to form proteins and on the other hand, protein is beneficial for human skin, muscle building, hair, and digestive system.
- Humans get nitrogen through plants and trees get nitrogen from the bacteria present in the soil.
- Humans and organisms eat nitrogen present in plants, due to which they get a lot of help in everyday life and after the death of organisms, their body gets mixed again in the soil.
How are humans influencing the nitrogen cycle
Humans are doing many such activities which are influencing the nitrogen cycle. Humans burn fossil fuels in large quantities and in addition use nitrogen-based fertilizers too much. And by doing this, the possibility of increasing the amount of nitrogen in our ecosystem also increases.
Why are bacteria required in the nitrogen cycle
- Bacteria are required to stabilize the nitrogen cycle because bacteria play an important role in the flow between nitrogen and the soil.
- Plants cannot take nitrogen directly from the air, so they take nitrogen with the help of bacteria found in the soil.
- Bacteria are present in the roots of plants whose purpose is to convert nitrogen into nitrogen compounds, due to which it is easier for plants to absorb it.
Bacteria for nitrogen Cycle
- Nitrogen-fixing bacteria: It helps convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into nitrates.
- Bacteria of decay: these bacteria help to convert decaying nitrogen waste into ammonia.
- Nitrifying bacteria: This helps to convert ammonia into nitrates or nitrites.
- Denitrifying bacteria: It helps to convert nitrates into nitrogen gas.