The body is a huge and detailed system of structures and organs. The body has different systems, each of which plays a vital role. The sum of the tissues of the body constitutes the organ, and the sum of the organs make up the organs of the body, such as the nervous system, reproductive system, lymphatic system, digestive system, and respiratory system. In this article, we want to explain the function of two systems of the body and their connection with each other.
What is the digestive system
The digestive system is responsible for digestive processes. The digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal tract and its associated organs, It is a continuous tract that starts from the mouth and continues to the anus. Different parts of this tract are separated by muscles called sphincters.
The gastrointestinal tract includes the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. Associated organs are salivary glands, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.
Nutrition is being broken down into small particles until the intestine be able to absorb them, This process is done with the help of some compounds such as enzymes and gastrointestinal motility
How does the digestive system work step by step
First mechanical and chemical digestion is done in the mouth, mechanical digestion by teeth and chaw, chemical digestion by Amylase enzyme which affects starch. The salivary glands secrete saliva into the mouth, it includes water, bicarbonate ions, and enzymes. Finally, we have a soft, slippery food mass that can pass through the gastrointestinal tract without damaging it.
By pressing the tongue, the food mass goes back into the mouth and the pharynx. The pharynx has 4 directions, Epiglottis stops food from entering the larynx, the Soft palate stops food from entering Nasopharynx and the tongue stops food from getting back into the mouth, so food goes to the esophagus. With the movement of the esophagus and with the help of gravity, food goes down throughout the esophagus to the beginning of the stomach. In this way, the food is swallowed.
Food is stored in the stomach and its chemical digestion is continued by some enzymes these enzymes are secreted by cells in the stomach or pancreas. Amylase breaks down carbohydrates and lipases break down lipids. Pepsin breaks down protein molecules into smaller molecules. In addition to chemical digestion, the stomach also performs mechanical digestion with its muscles. Unlike other organs of the gastrointestinal tract, the stomach muscles are three layers. The result of the stomach’s work is an acidic liquid called chyme that enters the small intestine.
Chemical digestion ends in the small intestine by pancreatic and small intestine cell’s enzymes. Maximum chemical digestion is done in the first part of the small intestine called the duodenum. Small intestine movements cause completing mechanical digestive, in addition, chyme spread over the surface of the small intestine to increase absorption. Now nutritions are ready for absorption, proteins broke down into amino acids, lipids into monoglyceride/ fatty acids, and carbohydrates into glucose. Vitamins, minerals, and water are also absorbed.
Unabsorbed and undigested material, dead cells, and remnants of digestive juices enter the large intestine. The large intestine absorbs the water and ions, the stool becomes solid and removed from the body throughout the rectum and anus by the large intestine’s movements.
The liver, which is one of the organs connected to the gastrointestinal tract, is responsible for storing absorbed material. The liver makes glycogen and protein from absorbed material and stores it with iron and some vitamins.
How does the respiratory system work with the digestive system
At first glance, the connection between these two systems is not easily visible, but in this section, we will explain it.
As you read above, the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract contract and expand to facilitate mechanical movement and digestion, muscles need oxygen for these activities, which is provided by the respiratory system.
Unlike digestion, breathing is a continuous activity that never stops. We realized that there are muscles, they regulate inhalation and exhalation, so these muscles need fuel (glycogen) which is stored in the liver by the digestive system.
Cellular respiration reveals the growing connection between these two systems. Cellular respiration, as its name implies, provides energy to the body’s cells.
C6H12O6 (s) + 6 O2 (g) → 6 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l) + heat
( ATP is also generated in this process which is a common form of energy for cellular uses.)
Glucose(C6H12O6) that u see above provided by the digestive system, O2 is necessary and provides throughout the respiratory system and CO2 must remove the body also by this system. Without this coordination, it will be impossible to supply energy to the cells.
As you see there’s a strong connection between the digestive system and respiratory system like all other parts of this wonderful human body.
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