ScienceHow does hydropower work step by step

How does hydropower work step by step

What is hydropower

Hydropower is also called as water power, It’s a kind of energy which is converted from water into electrical energy. hydropower is used for renewable energy sources, and the operation of mechanical devices, for example, gristmills, sawmills, trip hammers, textile mills, domestic lifts, ore mills, and dock cranes.

Perhaps you would aware that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, so the energy that is made from hydropower is actually solar energy.


how does hydropower work


How does hydropower work step by step

  1. There’s a dam that holds back water, creating a vast and large water reservoir behind it.
  2. Often it is used as a recreational lake and is also called intake.
  3. The dam has gates, whenever these gates open, gravity pulls the water through the penstock (a line of pipe that leads to the turbine)
  4. The pressure of water increasing while passing penstock.
  5. The water strikes and turns the large blades of the turbine which is attached to a generator above it by a shaft.
  6. The turbine’s blades turn, so the series of magnets inside the generator happens and the result is to producing alternative current (AC).
  7. The transformer is inside the powerhouse, it takes the AC and converts it to a higher voltage current.



As long as there is water flowing on the earth, we will continue to generate electricity from hydroelectric power plants. Because electricity can be made easily from water as compared to other energy sources such as wind energy. It also requires less maintenance.



Hydropower does not affect our environment much, it neither pollutes the air nor does water. However, apart from this, there are many other disadvantages of hydropower, especially in the area where the dam is built.



Hydropower operates with the help of water, due to which it’s considered a clean fuel source, besides other energy sources such as fossil fuels, coal or natural gas are harmful to our environment and they have to be maintained more. On the other hand, it’s good for irrigation, and flood control.


Hydropower advantages and disadvantages

Advantages Disadvantages 
Hydropower’s powerhouse can be used for 50 years or in some cases it reaches to 100 years It takes more time than others to build and operate a hydropower plant
Output of hydropower doesn’t get declined over time, in steam power plant it gets decreased over time It needs more expenditure than a steam power plant
It doesn’t produce greenhouse gases Limitation of a suitable place to build a dam. It doesn’t available in some countries which exist in dry areas with not enough and vast rivers
Dam stops flood happens, in this way protect the farms of the region. In addition, it causes more easy irrigation of agricultural lands


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