Delhi Sultanate History
The Delhi Sultanate was founded in 1206 AD. The establishment of the Delhi Sultanate was the result of the propaganda activities that encouraged the religious and political changes in Arabia and Central Asia. Before the Mughal established their empire, the Delhi Sultanate was considered the most powerful state in northern India.
The slave of Muhammad Ghori, named Qutb-ud-din Aibak was the first Sultan of the Delhi sultanate. The kingdom of Aibak extended to the whole of Northern India. the Khilji dynasty took over Central India but failed to organize the Indian subcontinent. And the sultanate came to an end in 1526 by the Mughal Empire. Still, It was spread over 3.2 million square kilometers.
Delhi Sultante Dynasties
- Slave Dynasty (1206 – 1290)
- Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320)
- Tughalak Dynasty (1320 -1423)
- Syed Dynasty (1424 -1452)
- Lodi Dynasty (1452-1526)
Delhi Sultanate Rulers
- Qutbuddin Aibak (1206 to 1210)
- Aram Shah (1210 to 1211)
- Iltutmish (1211 to 1236)
- Ruknuddin Firoz (April 1236 to November 1236)
- Razia Sultan (1236 to 1240)
- Muizuddin Bahram shah (1240 to 1242)
- Alauddin Masood Shah (1246 to 1266)
- Ghiyasuddin balban (1266 to 1286)
- Kaikubad and shamsuddin (1287 to 1290)
- Jalaluddin firuz khalji (1290 to 1296)
- Alauddin Khilji (1296 to 1316)
- Shihabuddin Omar Khilji (Few month in 1316)
- Qutbuddin Mubarak Khilji (1316 to 1320)
- Nasiruddin khusrau shah (April 15 to April 27 in 1320)
- Ghiyath al-din tughluq (1320 to 1325)
- Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325 to 1351)
- Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351 to 1388)
- Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq II (1388 to 1389)
- Abu bakr shah (1389 to 1390)
- Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq (1394 to 1394)
- Nusrat Shah Tughlaq (1395 to 1398)
- Mahmud tughlaq (1399 to 1412)
- Khizr Khan (1414 to 1421)
- Mubarak Shah (1421 to 1434)
- Mahmud shah (1434 to 1445)
- Alauddin Alam Shah (1445 to 1450)
- Bahlol Lodi (1451 to 1489)
- Sikandar Lodhi (1489 to 1517)
- Ibrahim Lodi (1517 to 1526)
Qutbuddin Aibak – He was the ruler of medieval India as well as the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate and the first Sultanate of the Ghulam dynasty. He was Turkish from the Aibak community and was a Sultan for only four years between 1206 and 1210.Aram Shah – He was the second Ruler of this dynasty. and he ruled only for 1 year from 1210 to 1211.
Iltutmish belonged to the Ilbari tribe of Turkestan from the beginning. he showed signs of intelligence and cleverness and ruled 1211 to 1236 AD.
Rukn-ud-din Firuz was the half brother of Ruknuddin Firoz Shah and Razia. however, he has declared as a Sultan in April or May in the year 1236 AD on the second day of Iltutmish’s death. Before becoming a Sultan he used to manage the government of Badaun and Lahore.
Razia Sultan was the ruler of Delhi between 1236 to 1240, Besides, she was the first female Muslim ruler in Indian history. Her rule has great importance in Indian history, Her father Iltutmish worked as a servant under Qutubuddin Aibak in Delhi.
Muiz ud din Bahram Shah was the son of Iltutmish and the younger brother of Razia sultana. Muizuddin Bahram Shah sat on the throne of Delhi in the year 1240 to1242 AD.
Alauddin Masood Shah was the great-grandson of Iltutmish when Bahram shah tried to take the powers of the Sultan into his own hands so 40 Turkish Nobels removed him and appointed Alauddin Masood Shah as the sultan of Delhi, He ruled 1246 to 1266.
Ghiyas ud din Balban, His original name was Bahudin. He ruled from 1266 to 1286. Ghiyasuddin Balban was an Ilbari Turk.
Kaikubad and Shamsuddin He ruled 1287 to 1290.
Jalaluddin Firuz khilji was the founder of the Khalji dynasty he sat on the throne of Delhi on 13 June 1290 AD. and he obtained the throne of Delhi by killing Shamsuddin Qumars.
Alauddin Khilji was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty, And he was a truly powerful and aggressive emperor, Alauddin killed his uncle Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji and took his throne from his name, He continued to spread his empire in India by carrying forward the legacy of the Khilji dynasty, he liked to call himself as another Alexander he was given the title of (Sikander-i-Sani), He had banned the open sale of liquor in his state, He ruled 1296 to 1316.
Shibab-ud-din Omar Khilji ruled only for few months in the year 1316.
Qutbuddin Mubarak Khalji was the third son of Sultan Alauddin Khilji the Sultan of the Khilji dynasty Malik Kafur one of the influential persons of Alauddin was its patron He ruled only for 4 years from 1316 to 1320.
Nasiruddin khusrau shah was born a Hindu but later he converted to Islam and became a Muslim and ruled April 15 to April 27 in 1320 only for 12 days.
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq He was the first ruler to establish the Tughlaq dynasty in Delhi, His old name was Ghazi Malik, After sitting on the throne of the Delhi Sultanate took his new name Gaiasuddin and he ruled from 1320 to 1325.
Muhammad bin Tughluq was the son and the successor of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, He ruled from 1325 to 1351 AD, He is known in history for his cynical schemes and cruel acts, At the same time, he is also said to be a scholar and a great commander.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq He was ascended to the throne of Delhi Sultanate at the age of 45 his father’s name was Rajab who was the younger brother of Giasuddin Tughlaq, While his mother was the princess of Deepalpur, he ruled from 1351 to 1388.
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq II ruled 1388 to 1389 just for 1 year.
Abu Bakr Shah ruled 1389 to 1390 for 1 year.
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq He ruled 1390 to 1394 only for 4 years.
Nusrat Shah Tughluq ruled 1395 to 1398 only for 3 years.
Mahmud tughlaq ruled 1399 to 1412 and he was the last Ruler of that dynasty who ruled only for 13 years.
Khizr Khan was the founder of the Sayyid dynasty, Khizr Khan ascended to the throne of Delhi from 1414 to 1421.
Mubarak Shah was the son of Khizr Khan of the Sayyid dynasty, Khizr Khan appointed him as his successor Mubarak Shah assumed the title of ‘Shah‘ and issued coins in his name He ruled 1421 to 1434.
Muhammad Shah ruled from 1434 to 1443 for 19 years.
Alauddin Alam Shah was the son of Muhammad Shah of the Sayyid dynasty After the death of Muhammad Shah Alauddin assumed the title of ‘Alamshah’ and ascended the throne in the name of Alauddin Alamshah he ruled 1443 to 1451.
Bahlol Lodi established the first Afghan dynasty in the Delhi Sultanate, the Lodi rulers were from the Afghan tribe,
Therefore they are also known as Pathans, Bahlol Lodi ruled only for 38 years from 1451 to 1489.
Sikandar Lodhi was the second Sultan Lodi dynasty of Delhi Sultanate, his original name was ‘Nizam Khan‘ and it sat on the throne of Delhi on 17 July 1489 with the title of Sultan Sikandar Shah he ruled 1489 to 1517 only for 28 years.
Ibrahim Lodi, After the death of Sikander Lodi his eldest son Ibrahim Lodi, ascended to the throne from 1517 to 1526 only for 9 years and he was the last sultan of Delhi.
Delhi Sultanate Architecture
- Qutub Minar
- Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra
- Quwwatul Islam Mosque
- Alai Darwaza
- Jamatkhana Mosque
- Iron Pillar
- Sultan Gauri Tomb
- Tughlaqabad Fort
Built by- Qutubuddin Aibak
Qutub Minar is the tallest tower in the world, built of brick in Delhi, Mehrauli, Delhi is called the heart of India many ancient buildings and heritage are located there.
Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra
Built by- Qutubuddin aibak
The Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra is a mosque built by Qutub-ud-din-Aibak and he was the first Sultan of Delhi in 1199 AD.
Quwwatul Islam Mosque
Built by- Qutubuddin aibak
This mosque in Delhi is said to be a unique piece of Islamic art its construction was started by Qutb-ud-din Aibak in the year 1192 but it was not completed However it was later completed by Iltutmish in 1230 and 1315 by Alauddin Khilji.
Built by- Sultan Alauddin Khilji
The Alai Darwaza is present in the southern part of the Qualt-ul-Islam Mosque in the Qutub Minar complex, The Alai Darwaza is built using red sandstone and white marble.
Built by- Khizar khan.
Built by- Chandragupta II
This pillar is seven meters tall and situated on the premises of Qutub Minar in Delhi, It weighs about six tons.
Sultan Gori Tomb
Built by- Iltutmish.
Built by- Ghiyasuddin tughlaq
Tughlaqabad Fort is a ruins fort of Delhi, built-in 1321 by Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty.
Delhi Sultanate UPSC
Delhi Sultanate is an important topic, there is not a single government exam where the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire is not asked, So here are some important question and answers for UPSC.
Qutb al-Din Aibak was the first ruler of the Mamluk dynasty and founder of Delhi Sultanate, He was a liberal ruler and ruled Delhi for four years, Qutub-ud-din Aibak laid the foundation of the famous Qutub Minar of Delhi India.
Qutub Minar was built by Qutubuddin Aibak in tribute to Sufi saint ‘Sheikh Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki‘ He built a mosque called Dhai din ka jhopra in Ajmer. Qutbuddin Aibak died of falling from a horse while playing Chowgan.
Another important ruler of the Delhi sultanate was Shams-ud-din Iltutmish he was the son-in-law of Qutb-ud-din Aibak. Shams-ud-din Iltumish was known for the ace system of land, revenue, and the completion of the Qutub Minar.
Jalal-ud-din Firoz founded the Khilji dynasty, He was assassinated by his nephew Alauddin Khilji, He assumed the title of ‘Sikandar-e-Sani‘ which means Alexander II.
After the death of Alauddin Khilji, Firoze’s son Mubarak Shah was succeeded by him. But he too was assassinated by Khusru Khan, Khusru sat on the throne of the Delhi Sultanate for some time, Later on, he was killed by Ghiyath-al-Din Tughlaq.
Giyath-al-Din Tughlaq also known as Ghazi Malik, His mother was a Hindu besides he was the first Sultan who built canals, and cities during his reign, he established cities called Hisar, Jaunpur (West Bengal), Fatehabad, Firozabad.
After the Tughlaq dynasty, Khizr Khan established the Sayyid dynasty, and after his death, his son Mubarak Khan ascended the throne and assumed the title Shah, The famous writer in Mubarak Shah’s court was Sirhindi, He wrote ‘Tithi-e-Mubarak Shahi‘
However Al-ud-din Alam Shah was the last ruler of the Sayyid dynasty, He voluntarily relinquished the throne in favor of Bahlol Lodi
Bahlol Lodi was the first Afghan ruler to sit on the throne of Delhi, He assumed the title ‘Bahlol Shah Ghazi‘ Bahlol Lodi’s son Nizam Khan ascended the throne with the title ‘Sultan Sikander Shah Lodi,
Sikandar Lodhi founded the city of Agra in 1504 AD and made it his capital, At his command, the Sanskrit treatise ‘Ayurveda’ was translated into Persian by the name of ‘Farahange – Sikandari’.
After the death of Sikandar Lodi from throat cancer, his son Ibrahim Lodi ascended the throne, Daulat Khan Lodi one of Ibrahim Lodi’s uncles fled to Kabul and invited Babur to attack India, due to Daulat Khan Lodi, Babur attacked northern India On 21 April 1526 the first battle of Panipat took place between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi, in that war Ibrahim Lodi was defeated by Babur.
Important Question and Answer related to Delhi sultanate
Which was the Sultan of Delhi Who died while playing ‘Chaugan’ (Polo)?
What was the court language of Delhi Sultanate?
Who was the last ruler of the Lodi dynasty?
Who is the author of the autobiography ‘Shahnama’?
The Delhi Sultanate was ruled by the total?
By five dynasties
In whose reign was Alberuni a historian?
When was the first war of Tarain?
The coins of which Muslim ruler have the figure of Goddess Lakshmi?
Which Sultan of Delhi imposed Jiziya on Brahmins also?
Feroz shah tughlaq
What was the name of the first Muslim invader who came to India in 712 AD?
Muhammad bin qasim
Balban was the Prime Minister of which Sultan before assuming the office of Sultan of Delhi?
The Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque was built by whom
Who started the leather emblem in India?
Muhammad bin tughlaq
Where was Amir Khusro born?
Who was the Indian ruler known as ‘Lakhbakhsh’
Who was the first female ruler to rule Delhi?
What was the real name of Genghis Khan?
Who was the Sultan to call himself the second Alexander (Alexander-e-Sani)?
Under whose reign were the most Mongol invasions?
To whom did Alauddin Khilji entrust the mission of conquering the south?
Which Rajput king defeated Muhammad Gauri for the first time?
The city of Agra was founded by?
Who is called the ‘Prince of Maniyars’?
Muhammad bin tughlaq
Who was the founder of the Ghulam dynasty in India?
Who established a separate department called Diwan-e-Khairat?
Feroz shah Tughluq
How many times did Mahmud Ghaznavi invade India?
In whose reign did the traveler Ibn Batuta come to India?
Muhammad bin tughlaq
Who completed the construction work of Qutub Minar?
Who became the Sultan of Delhi after Qutubuddin Aibak in 1210?
Whose daughter was Razia Sultan?