Alauddin Khilji | History, Empire, Works
Who was Alauddin Khilji
Alauddin Khilji was the second and most important ruler of the Khilji dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, he had several times defended India from Mongols, Alauddin’s reign lasted from 1296 to 1316.
Information about Alauddin Khilji
|Date of birth||1266|
|Nickname||Sikandar i sani (Second Alexander)|
|Wives||Mahrun, Kamla devi, Jhatyapali, and Malika-e-jahan|
|Children||Shihabuddin Omar, Khizr Khan, Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah, Shadi khan|
|Place of burial||Qutub Minar complex|
The early life of Alauddin Khilji
Alauddin’s date of birth is not recorded in any book but historians believe that Alauddin Khilji was born in Bengal between 1260 and 1270 and his childhood name was Ali Gurshasp.
Alauddin Khilji History
In the beginning, Alauddin was appointed on the post of (Aamir-i-Tujuk) in the court of his uncle named Sultan Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji.
In 1291 Malik Chhajju revolted against Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji, but Alauddin Khilji successfully suppressed this Rebellion, Therefore his uncle appointed him as the Governor of Kara.
In 1292, After conquering Bhilsa city, Alauddin Khilji received Awadh province from his uncle as a gift. After that Alauddin Khilji assassinated his uncle by deception.
Alauddin Khilji principle of Kingship
Alauddin believed that he was the representative of God on earth.
Alauddin’s doctrine was based on autocracy he could do anything without any legal hindrance or material action.
However, Ziauddin Barani has written in his book that the people of Delhi were happy during the time of Alauddin.
Alauddin Khilji empire
Conquest of Gujarat
Alauddin made the first attack on Gujarat in 1299, and at that time a man named “Karna Deva” used to be the king of Gujarat, Alauddin chose Gujarat first because he knew that the economic system of Gujarat was not down.
Due to fear of Alauddin, Karan had somehow escaped to Devgri, but Alauddin got Karna’s daughter Deval Devi married to his son Khijr Khan.
After defeating Karan in Gujarat, Alauddin got Karan’s slave Malik Kafur, who later played an important role in spreading the kingdom of Alauddin Khilji.
Victory of Ranthambhore
In the year 1301, when Alauddin attacked Ranthambhore, at that time there was Chauhan dynasty rule, whose ruler was Hamir Dev.
Alauddin defeated Hamir Dev in the first attack, but in this battle, an important person of Alauddin named Nusrat Khan was killed, which caused great pain to Alauddin.
Conquest of Chittor
In 1303, the battle of Chittor consisted of two poets of Alauddin Khilji, Amir Khusro, and Amir Hasan
The biggest reason to conquered Chittor was that Chittor was on the way to Gujarat and was very important from a business point of view.
After conquering Chittor, Alauddin Khilji renamed the fort of Chittor to Khizrabad in honor of his son.
Apart from Chittor, Alauddin also conquered the areas around Chittor like Marwar, Jalore, and Malwa, after this Alauddin started conquering South India.
Some old stories also mention that Alauddin had won Chittor because he wanted to acquire Queen Padmavati.
Victory of Devgiri
Alauddin attacked Devgiri in the year 1306 or 1307, and the reason for the attack was that Ramdev, the king of Devgiri, refused to pay an annual tax to Alauddin Khilji.
Ramdev was the ruler of the Chauhan dynasty, However, Ramdev was brought to Delhi after conquering Devagiri, and after that Ramdev surrendered Alauddin Khilji.
Conquest of Telangana
In the year 1308, the Kakatiya dynasty was ruling in Telangana, whose ruler was Pratap Rudra Dev and the reason for attacking Telangana was that Telangana was a very rich place.
Pratap Rudra Dev surrendered Sultan Alauddin Khilji and also gifted Kohinoor Diamond to Alauddin.
Victory of Dwar Samudra
Alauddin conquered it in 1310, at that time Ballal III was the ruler of Dwar Samudra, and Ballal III belonged to the Hoysala dynasty.
Conquest of Madura
In the year 1312, the Pandya dynasty ruled Madura and the two rulers of the Pandya dynasty Sundar Pandya and Vir Pandia were ruling.
But for some reason war broke out between Sundar Pandya and Vir Pandya after this Sundar Pandya asked Sultan Alauddin Khilji for help to defeat Vir Pandia, therefore Alauddin defeated Vir Pandya, and Sundar Pandya started ruling the Khilji dynasty.
Alauddin strengthened his army as soon as he became the ruler, he built a permanent army, so the soldiers were always present in the protection of the fort.
At the same time, Alauddin started giving currency to the army, because the predecessors of Alauddin did not give money to the soldiers in exchange for work but they give a piece of land.
Alauddin Khilji started marking his soldiers to identify them so that no enemy soldiers could join Khilji’s army, and at the same time, Alauddin started marking the horses, which led to the number of horses that Could be traced and horses were also easier to identify.
After consolidating his army, Khilji was in great need of money, for this he imposed two major taxes on the people called Charai and Ghari, under which people had to pay 50% tax to Alauddin.
Charai – If farmers used to feed their cattle on government land, then they had to pay tax for it.
Ghari – If a person lived in a house built on government land, he also had to pay tax.
To collect the tax, Alauddin created a post called (Diwan-i-Mustakhraj) whose chief officer was a man named Mustakharaj.
Mongol attacks during the reign of Alauddin Khilji
During the time of Alauddin, Mongol invaders attacked India 4 times, but 4 times Alauddin bravely confronted the Mongol invaders and defeated the Mongols.
- Mongol made the first attack in the year 1298 at a place called Jalandhar.
- The second attack was made in the year 1299 at a place called Kili.
- The third attack took place in the year 1305 at a place called Amroha.
- The fourth attack was carried out in the year 1306 at a place called Ravi.
After losing all four wars, many Mongol invaders settled in areas around Delhi and converted to Islam, so those Mongols were also called New Muslims.
First female ruler of India – Razia Sultan
Before Alauddin came to power, shopkeepers used to scam in weight measurement, but as soon as Alauddin came to power he enacted a strict law to stop dishonesty under which if any shopkeeper was caught committing dishonesty then mass from his body was cut.
He created many types of markets in different places such as Food markets, Manufacturing markets, Market to sell Slaves and animals, and markets for daily commodities.
Alauddin Khilji law and order
Alauddin first banned alcohol, cannabis, gambling, and the meeting of rich people as he became the ruler because Alauddin believed that where there is alcohol, cannabis, or gambling, there are more people who can plot against Alauddin.
However, many historians also believe that Alauddin banned alcohol, cannabis, and gambling because these are banned in Islam.
Alauddin built the (Alai Darwaza) and (Kushka-e-Shikar) during his reign.
How did Alauddin Khilji died
Historians believe that Alauddin Khilji was assassinated by his lieutenant named Malik Naib at the age of 66 in the year 1316.
His tomb is situated at Qutub Complex in Mehrauli, Delhi.
Alauddin Khilji Achievements
Alauddin successfully extended from the Himalayas of North India to the Adam’s Bridge in south India.
Alauddin was successful to stop Mongols invaders
He was the first Muslim to build a mosque in South India
Khilji was successful to implement the price control policy, under which grains, clothes, medicines, animals, horses, etc. could be sold at a genuine price.
Alauddin Khilji UPSC
Alauddin was died in Delhi
He was tall and slim
His daughter name was Firoza
The most trusted General of Alauddin was Malik kafur
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